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REFERENCIAS

 

INTRODUCCIÓN

1 Abram S Benenson, ed., Control of Communicable Diseases in Man (Washington, D.C.: American Public Health Association, 1990), p. 90.

2 Salvo donde se señala, la información de los dos párrafos siguientes está recogida de: Tony Dajer, «Cholera: The Deadliest WakeUp Call», Links Health and Development Report, Vol. 9, nº 2 (primavera 1992), p. 7.

3 «Cholera in 1991», Weekly Epidemiological Record (publicación de la OMS), Vol. 67, nº 34 (21 agosto 1992), p. 253.

4 «Update: Cholera - Western Hemisphere, 1992»,Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Vol. 42, nº 5, 12 febrero 1993, p. 1.

5 Andrew Downie, «Killer Cholera Returns to Mexico with a Vengeance», Houston Chronicle, 26 mayo 1995, p. 26A; Citado en Mexico NewsPak, Vol. 3, nº 9, 22 mayo-4 junio 1995, p. 8.

6 «Cholera in 1991», Weekly Epidemiological Record (publicación de la OMS), Vol. 67, nº 34 (21 agosto 1992), p. 257.

7 Ibíd., p. 256.

8 Tony Dajer, «Cholera: The Deadliest Wake-Up Call», Links Health and Development Report, Vol. 9, nº 2 (primavera 1992), p. 25; Anne Platt, «Environmental Intelligence»,World Watch, noviembre/diciembre 1995, p. 6.

9 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1994.

10 Ibíd.

11 David Sanders y Adbulrahman Sambo, «AIDS in Africa: The Implications of Economic Recession and Structural Adjustment», Health Policy and Planning, Vol. 6 (1991), nº 2.

12 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1994.

13 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1996, p. 10.

14 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1991, p. 5.

15 Victor W Sidel, Perspectives: The Impact of Arms Spending on Health and Health Care in Industrialized and Developing Countries (artículo), p. 5.

16 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1994, p. 20.

17 «World Still Plagued by Poverty and Hunger», Health Alert, nº 135 (noviembre 1992), p. 356.

18 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1994, p. 16.

19 Katrina Galway, Brent Wolff y Richard Sturgis, Child Survival: Risks and the Road to Health (Columbia, Md.: Institute for Resource Development/Westinghouse/USAID, 1987), p. 34. Citado en George Kent, The Politics of Children's Survival (New York: Praeger, 1991), p. 60.

20 UNICEF. Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1994, p. 3.

21 «Zaire battles epidemic of polio, its worst ever»,New York Times International, 21 junio 1995.

22 UNICEF Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1995, p. 27 (gráfico).

23 Ibíd., p.29.

24 UNICEF Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1994, p. 6.

25 Ibíd., p. 9.

26 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1993, p. 22.

27 «Cholera in 1991», Weekly Epidemiological Record (una publicación de la OMS), Vol. 67, nº 34 (21 agosto 1992), p. 253.

28 Tony Dajer, «Cholera: The Deadliest Wake-Up Call», Links Health and Development Report, Vol. 9, nº 2 (primavera 1992), p. 25, p. 7.

29 Vincente M Witt y Fred M Reiff, «Environmental Health Conditions and Cholera Vulnerability in Latin America and the Caribbean», Journal of Public Health Policy, 12(4) (invierno 1991), p. 453.

30 Tony Dajer, «Cholera: The Deadliest Wake-Up Call», Links Health and Development Report, Vol. 9, nº 2 (primavera 1992), p. 25, p. 7.

31 Banco Mundial, Informe sobre el Desarrollo Mundial 1993: Inversión en Salud, p 93.

s32 «Poverty Linked to Cholera Epidemic, Says WHO», Third World Resurgence, nº 10 (junio 1991), p. 7.

33 Michael Toole et al., Goma Epidemiology Group, «Public Health Impact of Rwandan Refugee Crisis: What Happened in Goma, Zaire, in July, 1994?», The Lancet, p. 339, 11 febrero 1995.

34 Perlez Jane. «A New and More Vicious Killer: Dysentery», New York Times. 5 agosto 1994, p. A6.

35 Bonner Raymond «Cholera's Spread Raised Fear of Toll of 40,000 Rwandans», New York Times. 24 julio 1994, pp. 1 y 10. Division of Diarrhoeal and Acute Respiratory Disease Control—Interim Report 1994, OMS, 1995, pp. 27-28.

36 Boston Globe, 24 julio 1994

37 «Saving Lives Takes More Than Charity», Child Health Foundation News, nº 1, 1995, p. 5.

38 «Cholera Aid in Rwanda», Child Health Foundation News, nº 3, 1994, p. 6.

39 Correspondencia personal de William Greenough con David Werner, 31 enero 1995.

40 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1995, p. 27.

41 Hal Kane, «Life Expectancy Lengthens», The Worldwatch Institute, Vital Signs 1994, p. 135.

42 Rakiya Omaar y Alex de Waal, «U.S. Complicity by Silence, Genocide in Rwanda», CovertAction Quarterly, primavera 1995, pp. 7-9.

43 Hal Kane, The Hour of Departure: Forces that Create Refugees and Migrants, Worldwatch Institute, junio 1995, pp.14-15.

44 Ibíd., p.19.

45 Rakiya Omaar y Alex de Waal, «U.S. Complicity by Silence, Genocide in Rwanda», CovertAction Quarterly, primavera 1995, pp. 7-9.

 

PARTE 1

1 Sheila Zurbrigg, Rakku's Story: Structures of Ill-Health and the Source of Change (Madras, India: George Joseph/Sidma Offset Press, 1984).

2 Carl E Taylor y William B Greenough, III, «Control of Diarrheal Diseases», Annual Review of Public Health, Vol. 10 (1989), p. 221.

3 David Sanders, The Struggle for Health: Medicine and the Politics of Underdevelopment (London: Macmillan, 1985), pp. 85-87.

4 Ibíd., p. 87.

5 Correspondencia personal con Michael Tan de Health Action Information Network, Filipinas, agosto 1995.

6 Gish, «The Political Economy of Primary Care and Health by the People: a Historical Exploration», Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 136, pp. 203-211, 1979.

7 David Morley, See How They Grow: Monitoring Child Growth for Appropriate Health Care in Developing Countries, (1979 Macmillan Press), p. 20.

8 David Werner y Bill Bower, Aprendiendo a Promover la Salud, 1990, p. 534-557.

9 Declaración de Alma Ata, 12 septiembre 1978. Conferencia Internacional sobre Atención Primaria de Salud patrocinada por la OMS y el UNICEF, párrafo 10.

10 Ibíd., párrafo 1.

11 Scott B. Haldstead, Julia A. Walsh y Kenneth S. Warren, eds. Good Health at Low Cost, Rockefeller Foundation, New York, 1985, pp. 42-43.

12 Ibíd., pp. 44-45.

13 Ibíd., p. 50.

14 Actas de la Conferencia Internacional sobre Atención Primaria de Salud, Alma Ata, Kazajstán, 1978.

15 David Werner, «The Village Health Worker—Lackey or Liberator», pp. 5-10 y «Health Care and Human Dignity: A Subjective Look at Community-based Rural Health Programs in Latin America», pp. 8-15. (Documentos de HealthWrights).

16 Vea, por ejemplo, Robert Chambers, Rural Development: Putting the Last First (New York: John Wiley y Sons, 1983).

17 Observación personal de David Werner en el Proyecto Piaxtla, México, y también información recibida por él de líderes de otros programas basados en la comunidad de otras partes de México e Iberoamérica.

18 Vea, por ejemplo, Ben Wisner, «Power and Need in Africa» (Trenton, New Jersey: Africa World Press, 1989), pp. 53-86. También David Werner, «The Life and Death of Primary Health Care or The McDonaldization of Alma Ata», (documento de HealthWrights).

19 Anthony Zwi, Joanna Macrae y Antonio Ugalde, «Children and War», The Kangaroo: Bibliographic Archives for Maternal and Child Health in Developing Countries, Vol. 1, nº 1 (diciembre 1992), pp. 47-48.

20 Claudio Schuftan, «The Child Survival Revolution: A Critique», Family Practice, Vol. 7, nº 4, 1990, p. 329.

21 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1989, p. 2.

22 Ibíd., p. 1.

23 Ibíd., p. 18.

24 Ibíd., p. 1.

25 Medea Benjamin y Kevin Danaher, «Latin America's Struggle for Democratic Development», Global Exchanges (publicación de Global Exchange), nº11 (verano 1992), p. 1.

26 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1989, p. 1.

27 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1987, p. 2.

28 Ibíd., p. 2.

29 James P Grant, «A Child Survival and Development Revolution», Assignment Children: A Journal Concerned with Children, Women y Youth in Development, 61/62 (1983), p. 23.

30 Ibíd., p. 30.

31 Ben Wisner, «GOBI Versus PHC? Some Dangers of Selective Primary Health care», Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 26, nº 9, p. 963, 1988.

32 W Farrant, «Health Promotion and Community Health Movement: Experiences from the UK» (artículo presentado en el Simposio Internacional sobre Estrategias de Participación Comunitaria y Liberación, Universidad de Biefeld, Alemania, junio 1989), p. 8. Citado en John J. Macdonald,Primary Health Care: Medicine in its Place (West Hartford, Connecticut: Kumarian Press, 1993), p. 84.

33 George Kent, The Politics of Children's Survival (New York: Praeger, 1991), p. 162.

34 Claudio Schuftan, «The Child Survival Revolution: A Critique», Family Practice, Vol. 7, nº 4, 1990, p. 329.

35 Zaffrullah Chowdhury, «Basic Service Delivery in Underdeveloping Countries; A View from Gonoshasthaya Kendra», documento de trabajo preparado por UNICEF para el Encuentro Especial sobre la Situación de la Infancia en Asia, que se centra en los Servicios Básicos, E/ICEF/ASIA/9, 4 mayo 1977, pp. 18-19.

36 Giorgio Solimano y Clara Haignere, Free-Market Politics and Nutrition in Chile: A Grim Future after a Short-Lived Success (Centro para la Salud Familiar y de la Población, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Columbia, Documento de Trabajo nº7, mayo 1984); CA Monteiro, HP Pino Zuniga, MHA Benicio y CG Victora, «Better Prospects for Child Survival»,World Health Forum, Vol. 10 (1989), pp. 222-227; Rob Davies y David Sanders, «Economic Strategies, Adjustment and Health Policy: Issues in Sub-Saharan Africa for the 1990s»,Transformation 21, 1993, pp. 78-93; Giovanni Andrea Cornia, Richard Jolly y Frances Stewart, eds., Ajuste con Rostro Humano: Protección de los Vulnerables y Promoción del Crecimiento (Madrid: Siglo XXI de España editores, S.A., 1987), pp. 110, 111, 119; Florentino y RA Pedro, «Nutrition and Socio-Economic Development in Southeast Asia», Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, mayo 1992, pp. 95-101.

37 Rob Davies y David Sanders, «Economic Strategies, Adjustment and Health Policy: Issues in Sub-Saharan Africa for the 1990s», Transformation 21, 1993, pp. 78-93; Giovanni Andrea Cornia, Richard Jolly y Frances Stewart, eds., Ajuste con Rostro Humano: Protección de los Vulnerables y Promoción del Crecimiento (Madrid: Siglo XXI de España editores, S.A., 1987), pp. 112.

38 George Kent, The Politics of Children Survival (New York: Praeger, 1991), p. 158.

39 Para la Vida, UNICEF/OMS/UNESCO, 1989, portada.

40 George Kent, The Politics of Children Survival (New York: Praeger, 1991), p. 27.

41 Ibíd., pp. 28-29.

42 Ibíd., p. 164.

43 James Grant, «Marketing Child Survival»,Assignment Children, Vol. 65/68, 1984, p. 3.

44 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1995, p. 27.

PARTE 2

1 Ruxin, Jushua N, «Magic bullet: The history of oral rehydration», Medical History 1994; 38: 363-397.

2 Entrevista con el Dr. Fernando Silva, ex director del Hospital Infantil La Mascota de Managua, Nicaragua,Barricada Internacional, 8 septiembre 1988, p. 4.

3 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1993, p. 7 y 22.

4 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1994, p. 1

5 IW Booth y J T Harries, «Oral Rehydration Therapy: An Issue of Growing Controversy», Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, Vol. 28 (junio 1982), p. 116.

6 MA Rub, «Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT)»,In Touch, septiembre/octubre 1983, p. 3.

7 M Santosham y W Greenough, «Oral Rehydration Therapy: A Global Perspective», Journal of Pediatrics, abril 1991, 118(4) Pt. 2:S44-S51, discusión, S52.

8 N Hirschhorn, «The treatment of acute diarrhea in children. An historical and physiological perspective.»American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1980;33:637-663

9 Jay Siwek, «Diarrhea in Children»,International Child Health Foundation Newsletter, nº 13 (primavera 1993), p. 4; Stina Almroth, Michael Latham, «Rational home management of diarrhoeas», The Lancet, Vol. 345, 18 marzo 1995, p. 709 - 711.

10 Correspondencia personal con Norbert Hirschhorn, recordando su experiencia en el Boston City Hospital en los años 60.

11 «Cholera Review Meeting: 2627 abril 1993, Zimbabue» Actas. Ministerio de Salud y Bienestar Infantil y OMS.

12 Citado en USAID, Oral Rehydration Therapy: A Revolution in Child Survival. Oelgeschlager, Gunn & Hain, Weston MA, 1988. p. 19.

13 Carl E Taylor y William B Greenough, III, «Control of Diarrheal Diseases», Annual Review of Public Health, Vol. 10 (1989), p. 227.

14 Carl E Taylor y Xu Zhao Yu, «Oral Rehydration in China», American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 76, nº 2 (febrero 1986), pp. 187188.

15 Vea, por ejemplo, Carl E Taylor y Xu Zhao Yu, «Oral Rehydration in China», American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 76, nº 2 (1986), pp. 187188.

16 RA Cash, DR Nalin, R Rochat, LB Rellar, ZA Haque, AS Rahman, «A Clinical Trial of Oral Therapy in a rural cholera-treatment Center», American Journal Trop Med Hygiene 19:653, 1970.

17 Ruxin, Joshua N, «Magic bullet: The history of oral rehydration», Medical History 1994; 38: 363-397.

18 D Mahalanabis, AB Chowdhury, NG Bagchi et al., «Oral Fluid Therapy of Cholera among Bangladesh Refugees»,Johns Hopkins Medical Journal, Vol. 132 (1973), pp. 197205; Norbert Hirschhorn y William B Greenough III, «Progress In Oral Rehydration Therapy», Scientific American, Vol. 264, nº 5 (mayo 1991), p. 53; Roger I Glass, Mariam Claeson, Paul A Blake, Ronald J Waldman y Nathaniel F Pierce, «Cholera in Africa: Lessons on Transmission and Control for Latin America», The Lancet, Vol. 338, nº 8770 (28 septiembre, 1991), pp. 793794.

19 «Water with Sugar and Salt» (editorial),The Lancet, 1978, 2, pp. 300301.

20 Glen Williams, A Simple Solution: How Oral Rehydration is Averting Child Death from Diarrhoeal Dehydration (informe especial del UNICEF).

21 Grisanti KA, Jaffe DM. «Dehydration syndromes. Oral rehydration and fluid replacement.» Pediatric Emergencies. Emergency Medical Clinics of North America1991; 9: 565-588.

22 Snyder J, «Global training needs: U.S. perspective.»Journal of Diarrhoeal Disease Research 1987; 4:297-282.

23 George Kent, The Politics of Children's Survival (New York: Praeger, 1991), p. 43.

24 Ibíd., p. 43.

25 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1986, p. 20.

26 USAID. Oral Rehydration Therapy, A Revolution in Child Survival. Oelgeschlager, Gunn & Hain. Weston MA, USA. 1988. p. 1.

27 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1993, p. 22; 1995, p. 27.

28 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1993, p. 22.

29 Anne Gadomski, Robert Black y W Henry Mosley, «Constraints to the Potential Impact of Child Survival in Developing Countries», Health Policy and Planning, 5(3) (1990), pp. 235236.

30 Tulloch J, Burton F, «Global access to oral rehydration salts and use of oral rehydration therapy.»World Health Stats. Quarterly. 1987; 40: 110-115.

\31 Jay Siwek, «Diarrhea in Children»,International Child Health Foundation Newsletter, nº 13 (primavera 1993), p. 4; Stina Almroth, Michael Latham, «Rational home management of diarrhoeas», The Lancet, Vol. 345, 18 marzo, 1995, p. 709 - 711.

32 «WHO Programme for Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases. Ninth Programme Report.» 1992-1993; WHO Division of Control of Diarrhoeal and Acute Respiratory Disease Control, Interim Report 1994. 1995, p. 40.

33 WHO Division of Control of Diarrhoeal and Acute Respiratory Disease Control, Interim Report 1994. 1995, p. 40.

34 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1995, p. 29.

35 «Global ORT Use Rates 1994», gráfico enviado a los autores por UNICEF en mayo de 1995.

36 WHO Programme for Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases. Ninth Programme Report. 1992-1993, p. 79.

37 Ibíd..

38 OMS, Weekly Epidemiological Record. 6 septiembre 1991.

39 WHO Programme for Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases, Interim Programme Report 1990, pp. 14, 17.

40 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1994, pp. 6.

41 Ruxin, Joshua N, «Magic bullet: The history of oral rehydration», Medical History 1994; 38: 363-397. Pág. 363.

42 Comunicación personal con Norbert Hirschhorn. Vea también: Riyad S, El Mougi M, Wahsh AA y Hirschhorn N, «After Rehydration: What Happens to the Child?»,Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 1991; 37:1-3.

43 Programme for the Control of Diarrhoeal Disease: Ninth Programme Report 1992-1993 OMS. 1994 p. 23.

44 WHO Programme for Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases: Seventh Programme Report, 1988-1989.

45 Barros FC, Victora CG, Forsberg B et al. «Management of childhood diarrhoea at the household level: a population based survey in north-east Brazil.» Bull World Health Organ 1991; 57: 21-24.

46 Oyoo AO, Bursatrom B, Forsberb B, Makhulo J. «Rapid feedback household surveys in PHC planning: an example from Kenya.» Health Policy Planing 1991; 6: 380-83.

47 Programme for the Control of Diarrhoeal Disease: Ninth Programme Report 1992-1993 OMS. 1994 p. 36.

48 En Bangladesh: Hoyle B, Yunus M, Chen LC, «Breastfeeding and food intake among children with acure diarrrheal disease.» Am J Clin Nit 1980; 33:2365-71;en Arabia Saudi: Rasheed P, «Perception of diarrhoeal diseases among mothers and mothers-to-be: implications for health education in Arabia Saudi.» Soc Sci Med 1993; 36:373-77;en India: Bentley ME, «The household management of childhood diarrhea in rural North India.» Soc Sci Med 1988; 27:75-85; también Viswanathan y Rohde, Diarrhoea in Rural India, p. 11; en Perú: Huffman SI, López de Romana G, Madrid S, Brown KH, Bentley M, Black RE, «Do child feeding practices change due to diarrhoea in the Central Peruvian Highlands?» J Diarrhoeal Dis Res 1991; 9:295-330; también: Bentley ME, Pelto GH, Straus WI et al. «Rapid ethnographic assessment: application in a diarrhea management program.»Soc Sci Med 1988; 27:107-16; en México: Martínez H, Saucedo G, «Mothers perception about childhood diarrea in rural México.» J Diarrhoeal Dis Res 1991; 9: 235-43;en Kenia: Oyoo AO, Burstrom B, Forsberg B, Makhulo J, «Rapid feedback from household surveys in PHC planning: and example from Kenia.» Health Policy Plan 1991; 6:380-83;en Suazilandia: Green EC, «Traditional healers, mothers, and childhood diarrheal disease in Swaziland: the interface of anthropology and health education.» Soc Sci Med 1985; 20:277-85; enLesotho: Stina Almroth, Michael Latham, «Rational home management of diarrhoeas.» The Lancet, Vol. 345, 18 marzo 1995, pp. 709-11.

49 Mathuram Santosham, «Nutritional Aspects of ORT» en Symposium Proceedings, CerealBased Oral Rehydration Therapy: Theory and Practice (actas de un simposio patrocinado por la International Child Health Foundation y el National Council for International Health, Washington, D.C., 17 febrero 1987), p. 24.

50 Ibíd., pp. 2425.

51 USAID. Oral Rehydration Therapy, A Revolution in Child Survival Oelgeschlager, Gunn & Hain. Weston MA, USA. 1988. P. 10.

52 Robert Moy, carta a los autores, enero 1995.

53 Carl E Taylor y William B Greenough, III, «Control of Diarrheal Diseases», Annual Review of Public Health, Vol. 10 (1989), p. 223.

54 Anne Gadomski, Robert Black y W Henry Mosley, «Constraints to the Potential Impact of Child Survival in Developing Countries», Health Policy and Planning, 5(3) (1990), p. 236, p. 241; Robert Halpern, «A Child Survival and Development Revolution?», International Journal of Early Childhood, Vol. 18, nº 1 (1986), p. 45; Carl E Taylor y William B Greenough, III, «Control of Diarrheal Diseases»,Annual Review of Public Health, Vol. 10 (1989), p. 223.

55 Fitzroy Henry, André Briend y Vincent Fauveau, «Child Survival: Should the Strategy Be Redesigned? Experience from Bangladesh», Health Policy and Planning, 5(3) (1990), p. 229; Anne Gadomski, Robert Black y W Henry Mosley, «Constraints to the Potential Impact of Child Survival in Developing Countries», Health Policy and Planning, 5(3) (1990).

56 V Fauveau, M Yunus, M Shafiqul Islam, A Briend y ML Bennish, «Does ORT Reduce Diarrhoeal Mortality?», Health Policy and Planning, Vol. 7 (1992), nº 3, pp. 243250.

57 Ibíd..

58 Woodall N, Appropriate Technology in the Developing World: Oral Rehydration Therapy in Bangladesh. Discurso para la Unidad Wellcome de Historia de la Medicina, Oxford, UK (1992).

59 Hirschhorn N, Stienglass R, «Are we ignoring different levels of mortality in the Primary Health Care debate?»Health Policy and Planning 1989, vol 4.

60 Programme for the Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases: Ninth Programme Report 1992-1993 OMS, 1994 p. 19.

61 Ibíd..

62 Cash R, Keusch GT y Lamstein J, Child Health and Survival: The UNICEF GOBIFFF Program, Croom Helms 1987 p.35.

63 Ibíd..

64 Glen Williams, A Simple Solution (informe especial del UNICEF), p. 9.

65 Programme for the Control of Diarrhoeal Disease: Ninth Programme Report 1992-1993, OMS, 1994 p. 16.

66 David Werner, Donde no hay Doctor, una guía para los campesinos que viven lejos de los centros médicos, p. 152.

67 «Diarrhoea and Potassium», Dialogue on Diarrhoea, nº 41 (junio 1990), p. 7.

68 Gore, Fontaine, Pierce, BMJ 1992, 304: 287-91; también:25 Years of ORS: Joint WHO/ICDDR,B Consultative Meeting on ORS Formulation. OMS, 1995. p. 3.

69 De una carta que comentaba un borrador inicial de este libro, de un amigo que escribía «de manera no oficial».

70 Dialogue on Diarrhoea, nº 41 (junio 1990), p. 2.

71 OMS, The Management and Prevention of Diarrhoea, Practical Guidelines, Tercera edición, 1993, p. 38.

72 Correspondencia con Norbert Hirschhorn, marzo 1995.

73 OMS, The Selection of Fluids and Food for Home Therapy to Prevent Dehydration from Diarrhoea: Guidelines for Developing a National Policy, 1993, p. 2.

74 C MacCormack y A Draper, Cultural Meanings of Oral Rehydration Salts in Jamaica, 1988, p. 258, deThe Context of Medicines in Developing Countries: Studies in Pharmaceutical Anthropology, 1988, editado por Shaak Van Der Geest y Susan Reynolds Whyte.

75 Stina Almroth, Michael Latham, «Rational home management of diarrhoeas», The Lancet, Vol. 345, 18 marzo 1995, p. 709 - 711.

76 Conversación personal de David Werner con participantes de la CITRO2.

77 Hema Viswanathan y Jon Eliot Rohde, Diarrhoea in Rural India: A Nationwide Study of Mothers and Practitioners, Nueva Delhi: UNICEF/Vision Books, 1990.

78 Ibíd., p. 14.

79 Ibíd..

80 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1994, pp. 6 y 15.

81 «AID's Unpublicized Failure»,Links Health and Development Report, Vol. 7, nº 3/4 (otoño/invierno 1990), p. 7.

82 UNICEF y Ministerio de Salud Pública de Honduras, Evaluación del Sistema de Distribución de Sales de Rehidratación Oral en Honduras, pp. iiiii.

83 Siener K, Wheat based ORS for Afghans (1989), International Rescue Committee, Peshawar, Pakistan. Citado enDialogue on Diarrhoea, nº 41 (junio 1990), p. 5.

84 Estudio de Rahaman y otros publicado en 1982 en elAmerican Journal of Public Health, citado enLinks Health and Development Report, Vol. 7, nº 3/4 (otoño/invierno 1990), p. 11.

85 Niel Brady, Forward to Oral Rehydration Therapy: A Revolution in Child Survival, USAID. Oelgeschlager, Gunn & Hain; Weston MA, USA, 1988.

86 MacCormack C y Draper A, Cultural Meanings of Oral Rehydration Salts in Jamaica, 1988, p. 286, deThe Context of Medicines in Developing Countries: Studies in Pharmaceutical Anthropology, 1988, editado por Shaak Van Der Geest y Susan Reynolds Whyte.

87 Programme for the Control of Diarrhoeal Disease: Ninth Programme Report 1992-1993 OMS, 1994 p. 15.

88 Carl E Taylor y William B Greenough, III, «Control of Diarrheal Diseases», Annual Review of Public Health, Vol. 10 (1989), p. 228.

89 Izzedin I Imam, «Peasant Perceptions: Famine», PeopleCentered Development, David C Korten, Rudi Klauss, ed. (Kumarian Press 1984), p. 122.

90 Green E, «Diarrhea and the Social Marketing of Oral Rehydration Salts in Bangladesh», Soc Sci Med, Vol. 23, nº 4 (1986), pp. 357366. Citado enPRITECH's Technical Literature Update, Vol. II, nº 9 (diciembre 1987), p. 3.

91 Información de cartas recibidas desde el Tercer Mundo como respuesta a unas preguntas. Además, David Sanders y David Werner dirigieron una encuesta informal sobre el coste relativo de los sobres de SRO respecto a los ingresos de los pobres de varios países del Tercer Mundo en el Simposio Internacional sobre TRO-BA (una conferencia patrocinada por la International Child Health Foundation y la Universidad Aga Khan que tuvo lugar en Karachi, Pakistán, en noviembre de 1989).

92 Alan Myers, Benjamin Siegel y Robert Vinci, «Economic Barriers to the Use of Oral Rehydration Therapy: A Case Report», Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 265 (3 abril 1991), pp. 17241725.

93 MA Rub, «Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT)»,In Touch, septiembre/octubre 1983, p. 3.

94 Norbert Hirschhorn, «Appropriate Health Technology in Egypt», Middle East Report, nº 161 (noviembrediciembre 1989), p. 26; Fitzroy Henry, André Briend y Vincent Fauveau, «Child Survival: Should the Strategy Be Redesigned? Experience from Bangladesh», Health Policy and Planning, 5(3) (1990), p. 228; Williams, Baumslag y Jelliffe,Mother and Child Health: Delivering the Services (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985), p. 84.

95 Norbert Hirschhorn, «Appropriate Health Technology in Egypt», Middle East Report, nº 161 (noviembrediciembre 1989), p. 26.

96 Organización Panamericana de la Salud, Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana, Oficina Regional de la OMS, 1990,Health Conditions in the Americas, edición 1990, Volume II, (Washington, D.C.) p. 49.

97 Black, Robert E, Brown HH, Becker S, «Effects of Diarrhea Associated with Specific Enteropathogens on the Growth of Children in Rural Bangladesh»,Pediatrics, 73:799 (1984). Citado en Mathuram Santosham, «Nutritional Aspects of ORT», en Symposium Proceedings, CerealBased Oral Rehydration Therapy: Theory and Practice (actas de un simposio patrocinado por la International Child Health Foundation y el National Council for International Health, Washington, D.C., 17 febrero 1987), p. 24.

98 MR Islam et al., «Lobongur (Common Salt and Brown Sugar) Oral Rehydration Solution in the Treatment of Diarrhoea in Adults», Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, nº 83 (1980), p. 44.

99 M ElRafie, WA Hassouna, N Hirschhorn, S Loza, P Miller, A Nagaty, S Nasser y S Riyad, «Effect of Diarrhoeal Disease Control on Infant and Childhood Mortality in Egypt»,The Lancet, Vol. 335, nº 8685 (10 febrero 1990), pp. 334-338.

100 Ibíd., p. 336.

101 Peter Miller y Norbert Hirschhorn, «The Effect of a National Control of Diarrheal Diseases Program on Mortality: the case of Egypt.» Social Science and Medicine, 1995. p. S1-S30.

102 Ray Langsten, Kenneth Hill, "Diarrhoeal disease, oral rehydration and Childhood Mortality in Egypt."Journal of Tropical Pediatrics Vol. 40. Oct. 1994, p. 272.

103 Norbert Hirschhorn, «Appropriate Health Technology in Egypt», Middle East Report, nº 161 (noviembrediciembre 1989), p. 27.

104 David Werner, «Egypt: Another Approaching Storm on the Desert», Newsletter from the Sierra Madre, nº24, junio 1991, p. 6. (documento de HealthWrights).

105 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1994, p. 6

106 Citado en OMS, Division of Diarrhoeal and Acute Respiratory Disease Control, Interim Report, 1995, p. 35; en agosto de 1994, el Programa Nacional para el Control de la Enfermedad Diarreica y el Programa Nacional para Infecciones Respitarorias Agudas del Ministerio de Salud egipcio llevaron a cabo una encuesta combinada sobre tratamiento casero de diarreas e IRAs en colaboración con la OMS y el UNICEF.

107 Peter Miller y Norbert Hirschhorn, «The Effect of a National Control of Diarrheal Diseases Program on Mortality: the case of Egypt.» Social Science and Medicine, 1995, p. S1-S30.

108 Hada Rashad, The impact on infant and child mortality, reappraisal of the evidence, 1991, informe entregado en una conferencia patrocinada por el Banco Mundial y la USAID.

109 Hada Rashad, «The Mortality Impact of Oral Rehydration Therapy in Egypt: Reappraisal of Evidence», in Kenneth Hill, ed., Child Health Priorities for the 1990s (informe de un seminario patrocinado por la USAID y el Banco Mundial en la Escuela de Higiene y Salud Pública de la Universidad Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, Maryland, 20-22 junio 1991, publicado por el Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health Institute for International Programs, Baltimore, Maryland, 1992), pp. 154155.

110 Peter Miller y Norbert Hirschhorn, «The Effect of a National Control of Diarrheal Diseases Program on Mortality: the case of Egypt.» Social Science and Medicine, 1995. P.67-68.

111 David Werner y Bill Bower, Aprendiendo a Promover la Salud, 1990, pp. 343-356.

112 Oral Rehydration Therapy: An Annotated Bibliography, Organización Panamericana de la Salud, Washington, D.C., 1980.

113 «Roundtable: The Politics of the Solution»,Links Health and Development Report, Vol. 7 nº 3/4 (otoño/invierno 1990), p. 12 (la sugerencia nace de comentarios de Ronald Wilson); Carl E Taylor y William B Greenough III, «Control of Diarrheal Diseases», Annual Review of Public Health, Vol. 10 (1989), p. 241.

114 V Fauveau, M Yunus, M Shafiqul Islam, A Briend y
ML Bennish, «Does ORT Reduce Diarrhoeal Mortality?», Health Policy and Planning, Vol. 7 (1992), nº 3, pp. 243250.

115 Riyad S, El Mougi AA y Hirschhorn N, «After Rehydration, What Happens to the Child?», J Trop Pediatr, 1991;37; 1-3.

116 «WHO Guidelines: Selection of Home Fluids»,Dialogue on Diarrhoea, nº 41 (junio 1990), p. 2; David Werner,Trip Report: Consultation by David Werner for the Mozambique Ministry of Health and UNICEF, 1-27 septiembre 1987, Maputo y Nampula, Mozambique, p. 17; F Cutts, J Cliff, R Reiss y J Stuckey, «Evaluating the Management of Diarrhoea in Health Centres in Mozambique», Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol. 91 (1988), pp. 6166.

117 Hema Viswanathan y Jon Eliot Rohde, Diarrhoea in Rural India: A Nationwide Study of Mothers and Practitioners (New Delhi: UNICEF/Vision Books, 1990).

118 Ibíd., p. 13.

119 La información de este párrafo está basada en la experiencia directa de David Sanders.

120 OMS, Case Management for the Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases in Zimbabue (1992), p. 3.

121 Ibíd.

122 De una carta del Dr. Robert Moy a los autores.

123 R Bradley Sack, «Global View of ORT», enSymposium Proceedings, CerealBased Oral Rehydration Therapy: Theory and Practice (actas de un simposio patrocinado por la International Child Health Foundation y elNational Council for International Health, D.C., 17 febrero 1987, p. 18; Mathuram Santosham, «Nutritional Aspects of ORT»,Ibíd., pp. 2425.

124 Ruxin, Joshua N, «Magic Bullet: The History of Oral Rehydration Therapy» Medical History. 1994. 38: 363-397, page 396.

125 Vea David Werner y Bill Bower, Aprendiendo a Promover la Salud, 1990, pp. 574-578.

126 Milton Silverman, Philip R. Lee y Mia Lydecker,Prescriptions for Death: The Drugging of the Third World, pp. 4059; J.A. WalkerSmith, «Underutilisation of Oral Rehydration in the Treatment of Gastroenteritis»,Drugs, Vol. 36, Supplement 4 (1988), p. 63; Logan Brenzel y Norbert Hirschhorn,Executive Summary of the UNICEF Macro and Micro Studies (informe preparado por John Snow, Inc.), p. 1; Michael Tan, «Who Killed Rosario», The New Internationalist, nº 165 (noviembre 1986), p. 8; David Gilbert, «Too Much of a Good Thing»,The New Internationalist, nº 165 (noviembre 1986), p. 18; Norbert Hirschhorn, «Appropriate Health Technology in Egypt», Middle East Report, nº 161 (noviembre-diciembre 1989), p. 27; OMS, Division of Diarrhoeal and Acute Respiratory Disease Control, Interim report 1994, 1995, p. 35.

127 Health Action International, «No Justification for Continued Production and Sale of Antidiarrhoeals for Children, States New WHO Report» (nota de prensa, 15 febrero 1991).

128 The Prescriber, noviembre 1992, nº4, p.1.

129 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1994, p. 6.

130 David Werner, Donde no hay Doctor: una guía para los campesinos que viven lejos de los centros medicos, p. 156, p. 369; Carl E Taylor y William B Greenough, III, «Control of Diarrheal Diseases», Annual Review of Public Health, Vol. 10 (1989), p. 231; Dianna Melrose,Bitter Pills, OXFAM, 1982, p. 99.

131 OMS, The Rational Use of Drugs in the Management of Acute Diarrhoea in Children (Génova: OMS, 1990).

132 WHO Programme for Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases, Interim Programme Report 1990, pp. 78; WHO Diarrhoeal Disease Control Programme, Report of the Twelfth Meeting of the Technical Advisory Group (Génova, 1822 marzo 1991), pp. 1516.

133 WHO Programme for Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases, Interim Programme Report 1990, p. 8.

134 OMS, The Rational Use of Drugs in the Management of Acute Diarrhoea in Children, p. 1.

135 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1994, p. 15.

136 Andrew Chetley, «Dumped on Third World: Harmful, Useless Drugs for Diarrhoea», Third World Resurgence, nº 10 (junio 1991), p. 5.

137 D Mahalanabis, «Development of an Improved Formulation of Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS) with Antidiarrhoeal and Nutritional Properties: a `Super ORS'» (artículo publicado por el Programa para el Control de las Enfermedades Diarreicas de la OMS), p. 2.

138 Logan Brenzel y Norbert Hirschhorn, Executive Summary of the UNICEF Macro and Micro Studies (informe preparado por John Snow, Inc.), p. 3.

139 Glen Williams, A Simple Solution (informe especial del UNICEF), pp. 57.

140 David A. Sack, «Use of Oral Rehydration Therapy in Acute Watery Diarrhoea: A Practical Guide»,Drugs 41(4) 566-573; Parveen Rasheed, «Perceptions of Diarrhoeal Diseases among Mothers and Mothers-to-Be: Implications for Health Education in Saudi Arabia», Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 36 nº 3, 1993, pp. 373-377.

141 James Grant, «Marketing Child Survival»,Assignment Children: A Journal Concerned with Children, Women and Youth in Development (UNICEF), 65/68 (1984), p. 3.

142 C MacCormack y A Draper, Cultural Meanings of Oral Rehydration Salts in Jamaica, 1988, pp. 286, 287, deThe Context of Medicines in Developing Countries: Studies in Pharmaceutical Anthropology, 1988, editado por Sjaak Van Der Geest y Susan Reynolds Whyte.

143 Viswanathan y Rohde, Diarrhoea in Rural India, pp. 1213.

144 Vea David Werner y Bill Bower, Aprendiendo a Promover la Salud, 1990, pp. 2830, 300307, 461-474.

145 David Werner, Trip Report: Consultation by David Werner for the Mozambique Ministry of Health and UNICEF, 1-27 septiembre 1987, Maputo y Nampula, Mozambique, p. 17.

146 «WHO Guidelines: Selection of Home Fluids»,Dialogue on Diarrhoea, nº 41 (junio 1990), p. 2; David Werner,Trip Report: Consultation by David Werner for the Mozambique Ministry of Health and UNICEF, 1-27 septiembre 1987, Maputo y Nampula, Mozambique, p. 17; F Cutts, J Cliff, R Reiss y J Stuckey, «Evaluating the Management of Diarrhoea in Health Centres in Mozambique», Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol. 91 (1988), pp. 6166.

147 C MacCormack y A Draper, Cultural Meanings of Oral Rehydration Salts in Jamaica, 1988, pp. 286, 287, deThe Context of Medicines in Developing Countries: Studies in Pharmaceutical Anthropology, 1988, editado por Sjaak Van Der Geest y Susan Reynolds Whyte.

148 Richard Feachem, «Oral Rehydration with Dirty Water?», Diarrhoea Dialogue, nº 4 (febrero 1981), p. 14; David Werner y Bill Bower, Aprendiendo a Promover la Salud, 1990, p. 293.

149 Programa para el Control de la Enfermedad Entérica, Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles, División de Prevención y Control de Enfermedades, Organización Panamericana de la Salud, Epidemiological Bulletin (publicación de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud), Vol. 3, nº 4 (1982), p. 14.

150 The Prescriber, noviembre 1992, nº4, UNICEF en colaboración con la United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc., p. 2.

151 Ibíd., p. 6.

152 Anne E. Platt, Infecting Ourselves: How Environmental and Social Disruptions Trigger Disease, Worldwatch Institute paper 129, abril 1996, pp. 43, 60.

153 Iftikhar A Malik, Seema Azim, Mary Jo Good, Muhammad Iqbal, Muhammad Nawaz, Lubna Ashraf y Noreen Bukhtiari, «Feeding Practices for Young Pakistani Children: Usual Diet and Diet During Diarrhoea», J Diarrhoeal Dis Res, sept. 1991, 213-218.

154 WHO Division of Diarrhoea and Acute Respiratory Disease Control, Interim Report 1994, 1995, p. 72.

155 Joshua Ruxin, Magic Bullet: The History of Oral Rehydration Therapy, Medical History, 1994, 38: 363-397, pp. 376- 377.

156 «Roundtable: The Politics of the Solution»,Links Health and Development Report, Vol. 7, nº 3/4 (otoño/invierno 1990), p. 15 (afirmación de Norbert Hirschhorn); Bradley Sack, "Global View of ORT", en Symposium Proceedings, CerealBased Oral Rehydration Therapy: Theory and Practice (actas de un simposio patrocinado por la International Child Health Foundation y el National Council for International Health, D.C., 17 febrero 1987, p. 16

157 Daniel Pizarro, Bernardita Catillo, Gloria Posada et al., «Efficacy Comparison of Oral Rehydration Solutions Containing Either 90 or 75 millimoles of Sodium per Liter», Pediatrics, Vol. 79, nº 2 (febrero 1987), citado enPRITECH's Technical Literature Update, Volume II, nº 4 (julio 1987), pp. 45; Mac Otten, «Manual for Teaching Women Cereal, Flour, Salt ORT» (Save the Children Federation Health Unit, noviembre 1986), p. 17.

158 OMS, «Oral Rehydration Therapy for Treatment of Diarrhoea in the Home» (documento de trabajo, 1986); «Household Management of Diarrhea and Acute Respiratory Infections» (Monografía nº12, «Report of a Scientific Meeting at the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health in Collaboration with the United Nations Children's Fund and the Diarrhoeal Diseases and Acute Respiratory Infections Control Programmes of the World Health Organization», noviembre 1990), p. 5.

159 Bonita F Stanton, Michael GM Rowly, John D Clements, «Oral Rehydration Solution—Too Little or Too Much»,The Lancet, enero 1987, pp. 3334. Citado enPRITECH's Technical Literature Update, Vol. II, nº 4 (julio 1987), pp. 23; OMS, «Oral Rehydration Therapy for Treatment of Diarrhoea in the Home» (documento de trabajo, 1986); «Household Management of Diarrhea and Acute Respiratory Infections» (Monografía nº12, «Report of a Scientific Meeting at the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health in Collaboration with the United Nations Children's Fund and the Diarrhoeal Diseases and Acute Respiratory Infections Control Programmes of the World Health Organization», noviembre 1990), p. 2.

160 David Werner, Donde no hay Doctor: una guía para los campesinos que viven lejos de los centros médicos, p. 152, p. 368.

161 LO Nwoye, PE Uwagboe y GU Madubuko, «Evaluation of HomeMade SaltSugar Oral Rehydration Solution in a Rural Nigerian Population», Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 91(1) (febrero 1988), pp. 2327. ;WHO Division of Diarrhoea and Acute Respiratory Disease Control, Interim Report 1994, 1995, p. 67.

162 Programme for the Control of Diarrhoeal Disease: Ninth Programme Report 1992-1993, OMS, 1994 p. 51;Division of Diarrhoeal and Acute Respiratory Disease Control, Interim Report 1994, OMS, 1995 p. 67.

163 «25 Years of ORS: Joint WHO/ICDDR, Consultative Meeting on ORS Formulation», 1994, p. 5, en OMS,Division of Diarrhoeal and Acute Respiratory Disease Control, Interim report 1994, 1995, p. 70, se da un rango de osmolaridad total de 225-260 mmol/l, con 75-90 mmol/l de glucosa y 60-75 mmol/l de sodio.

164 OMS, «Summary of Guidelines for Early Home Therapy to Prevent Dehydration», Annex 1, pp. 12.

165 Correspondencia personal de William Greenough con David Werner, enero 1995.

166 MK Bhan, NK Arora et al., «Major Factors in Diarrhoea Related Mortality among Rural Children», Indian Journal of Medical Research, Vol. 83 (enero 1986), pp. 912 (Citado enPRITECH's Technical Literature Update, Vol. 1, nº 5 (julio 1986), pp. 12; Bonita Stanton, John Clemens, Tajkera Khair et al., «Followup of Children Discharged from Hospital after Treatment for Diarrhoea in Urban Bangladesh», Tropical and Geographical Medicine, 1986, pp. 113118.

167 Kent, pp. 6465.

168 Iftikhar A Malik, Seema Azim, Mary Jo Good, Muhammad Iqbal, Muhammad Nawaz, Lubna Ashraf y Noreen Bukhtiari, «Feeding Practices for Young Pakistani Children: Usual Diet and Diet During Diarrhoea», J Diarrhoeal Dis Res, sept. 1991, 213-218.

169 E Isolauri, T Vesikari, P Saha et al., «Milk versus No Milk in Rapid Refeeding after Acute Gastroenteritis»,Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Vol. 5, nº 2 (1986), pp. 254261 (Citado enPRITECH's Technical Literature Update, Vol. 1, nº 7 (septiembre 1986), pp. 23 (vea también «Editorial Comment», PRITECH's Technical Literature Update, Vol. II, nº 3 (marzo 1987), p. 3; Mathuram Santosham, «Nutritional Aspects of ORT», enSymposium Proceedings, CerealBased Oral Rehydration Therapy: Theory and Practice (actas de un simposio patrocinado por laInternational Child Health Foundation y elNational Council for International Health, Washington, D.C., 17 febrero 1987), pp. 2427; Bradley Sack, «Global View of ORT»,Ibíd., p. 18.

170 Anne Gadomski, Robert Black y W Henry Mosley, «Constraints to the Potential Impact of Child Survival in Developing Countries», Health Policy and Planning, 5(3) (1990), p. 236, p. 241; Robert Halpern, «A Child Survival and Development Revolution?», International Journal of Early Childhood, Vol. 18, nº 1 (1986), p. 45.

171 Anne Gadomski, Robert Black y W Henry Mosley, «Constraints to the Potential Impact of Child Survival in Developing Countries», Health Policy and Planning, 5(3) (1990), p. 236, p. 241; Robert Halpern, «A Child Survival y Development Revolution?», International Journal of Early Childhood, Vol. 18, nº 1 (1986), p. 45.

172 Carl E Taylor y William B Greenough, III, «Control of Diarrheal Diseases», Annual Review of Public Health, Vol. 10 (1989), p. 221.

173 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1988, p. 3.

174 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1992, p. 11.

175 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1993, p. 22.

176 André Briend, «Is Diarrhoea a Major Cause of Malnutrition among the Underfives in Developing Countries? A Review of Available Evidence», European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 44 (1990), pp. 611628; André Briend, Kh Zahid Hasan, KMA Aziz y Bilais A Hoque, «Are Diarrhea Control Programmes Likely to Reduce Childhood Malnutrition? Observations from Rural Bangladesh», The Lancet, 5 agosto 1989, pp. 319322; Fitzroy Henry, André Briend y Vincent Fauveau, «Child Survival: Should the Strategy be Redesigned? Experience from Bangladesh», Health Policy and Planning, Vol. 5 (1990), nº 3, pp. 226234; RJD Moy et al, «Is diarrhea a major cause of malnutrition in developing countries? Analysis of data from rural Zimbabue.» Institute of Child Health, University of Birmingham, UK.

177 RJD Moy et al, «Is diarrhea a major cause of malnutrition in developing countries? Analysis of data from rural Zimbabue.» Eur J Clin Nutr 1994; 48:810-821.

178 Becker Stan, Black Robert E, Brown, Kenneth H, «Relative Effects of diarrhea, fever and dietary energy intake on weight gain in rural Bangladeshi children.»American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, junio 1991; 53: pp. 1499-1503.

179 Ibíd.

180 Carl E Taylor y Xu Zhao Yu, «Oral Rehydration in China», American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 76, nº 2 (1986), p. 187.

181 F Henry, A Briend y V Fauveau, «Child Survival: Should the Strategy be Redesigned? Experience from Bangladesh»,Health Policy and Planning, Vol. 5 (1990), nº 3, p. 230.

182 N Hirschhorn y WB Greenough III, «Progress in Oral Rehydration Therapy», Scientific American, Vol. 264, nº 5 (mayo 1991), p. 56; «Household Behavior and the Role of Community Participation in ORT Efforts» (ICORT III Panel Issue Paper), pp. 910; Jon E Rohde, «Therapeutic Interventions in Diarrhoea», Food and Nutrition Bulletin, Vol. 3, nº 4, p. 35; Mohamed I Hegazy, Osman M Galal, Mahmoud T ElMougy, Sue WallaceCabin y Gail G Harrison, «Composition of Egyptian Home Remedies for Diarrhea», Ecology of Food and Nutrition, Vol. 19 (1987), p. 248; Jaime L Palacios Treviño y Gabriel Manjárrez, «Nuevos aspectos de la rehidratación por vía oral en niños: un método sencillo de tratamiento»,Revista Mexicana de Pediatría, febrero 1982, p. 70; Soeprapto, Yati Soenarto, Nelwan, PA Moenginah y Ismangoen, «Feeding Children with Diarrhea» (Departamento de Salud Infantil, Facultad de Medicina, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia); MA Rub, «Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT)»,In Touch, septiembre/octubre 1983, p. 3; E Isolauri, T Vesikari, P Saha et al., «Milk versus No Milk in Rapid Refeeding after Acute Gastroenteritis», Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Vol. 5, nº 2 (1986), pp. 254261 (Citado en PRITECH's Technical Literature Update, Vol. 1, nº 7, septiembre 1986, pp. 23), vea también «Editorial Comment», PRITECH's Technical Literature Update, Vol. II, nº 3, marzo 1987, p. 3; Daniel Pizarro, Bernardita Catillo, Gloria Posada et al., «Efficacy Comparison of Oral Rehydration Solutions Containing either 90 or 75 Millimoles of Sodium per Liter», Pediatrics, Vol. 79, nº 2 (febrero 1987), pp. 190195 (Citado en PRITECH's Technical Literature Update, Vol. II, nº 4 (julio 1987), p. 5; Richard A Cash, «A History of the Development of Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT)», enSymposium Proceedings, CerealBased Oral Rehydration Therapy: Theory and Practice (actas de un simposio patrocinado por la International Child Health Foundation y elNational Council for International Health, Washington, D.C., 17 febrero 1987), p. 10; Bradley Sack, «Global View of ORT», enIbíd., pp. 1718; «Household Management of Diarrhea and Acute Respiratory Infections» (Monografía nº12, «Report of a Scientific Meeting at the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health in Collaboration with the United Nations Children's Fund and the Diarrhoeal Diseases and Acute Respiratory Infections Control Programmes of the World Health Organization», noviembre 1990), p. 2; Carl E Taylor y William B Greenough, III, «Control of Diarrheal Diseases»,Annual Review of Public Health, Vol. 10 (1989), p. 225, p. 241; World Health Organization, «Summary of Guidelines for Early Home Therapy to Prevent Dehydration», Annex 1, pp. 12.

183 E Isolauri, T Vesikari, P Saha et al., «Milk versus No Milk in Rapid Refeeding after Acute Gastroenteritis»,Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Vol. 5, nº 2 (1986), pp. 254261 (Citado enPRITECH's Technical Literature Update, Vol. 1, nº 7, septiembre 1986, pp. 23), vea también «Editorial Comment», PRITECH's Technical Literature Update, Vol. II, nº 3, marzo 1987, p. 3; Mathuram Santosham, «Nutritional Aspects of ORT», en Symposium Proceedings, CerealBased Oral Rehydration Therapy: Theory and Practice (actas de un simposio patrocinado por laInternational Child Health Foundation y elNational Council for International Health, Washington, D.C., 17 febrero 1987), p. 27; Bradley Sack, «Global View of ORT»,Ibíd., pp. 1718.

184 Norbert Hirschhorn y William B Greenough III, «Progress in Oral Rehydration Therapy», Scientific American, Vol. 264, nº 5 (mayo 1991), pp. 5556; Mathuram Santosham, «Nutritional Aspects of ORT», enSymposium Proceedings, CerealBased Oral Rehydration Therapy: Theory and Practice (actas de un simposio patrocinado por laInternational Child Health Foundation y elNational Council for International Health, Washington, D.C., 17 febrero 1987), pp. 2427.

185 Correspondencia personal con Norbert Hirschhorn, apoyada por su artículo: «The Effect of a National Control of Diarrheal Diseases Program on Mortality, the case of Egypt»,Soc Sci Med, marzo, 1995.

186 CE Taylor y WB Greenough III, «Control of Diarrheal Diseases», Annual Review of Public Health, Vol. 10 (1989), p. 225; Iftikhar A Malik, Seema Azim, Mary Jo Good, Muhammad Iqbal, Muhammad Nawaz, Lubna Ashraf y Noreen Bukhtiari, «Feeding Practices for Young Pakistani Children: Usual Diet and Diet During Diarrhoea»,J Diarrhoeal Dis Res, sept. 1991, 213-218.

187 Beaton, G, Martorell R, L'Abbe K, Edmonston B, McCabe G, Ross A y Harvey B, Effectiveness of Vitamin A Supplementation in the Control of Young Child Morbidity and Mortality in Developing Countries, informe final para CIDA, Universidad de Toronto, 1992.

188 «Controlling Vitamin A Deficiency», ACC/SCN State-of-the-Art Series, Nutrition Policy Discussion Paper nº 14, OMS, Génova, 1994.

189 Peter Miller y Norbert Hirschhorn, «The effect of a National Control of Diarrheal Diseases Program on Mortality: the case of Egypt.» Soc Sci Med, 40 (10), mayo 1995, p. S1-S30.

190 Felicity Savage King y Ann Burgess, Nutrition for Developing Countries, 2ª edición, 1992, p. 93; «Reducing Infection», Dialogue on Diarrhoea, nº 46 (septiembre 1991), p. 5.

191 Syra L Huffman y Adwoa Steel, Do Child Survival Interventions Reduce Malnutrition: The Dark Side of Child Survival (artículo publicado por Nurture/Centro para la Prevención de la Malnutrición Infantil, 1992), pp. Iii.

192 CE Taylor y WB Greenough, III, «Control of Diarrheal Diseases», Annual Review of Public Health, Vol. 10 (1989), p. 235.

193 John D Clemens et al., «Breast Feeding and the Risk of Severe Cholera in Rural Bangladeshi Children»,American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 131, nº 3 (1990), pp. 400411; CG Victora et al., «Evidence for Protection by BreastFeeding Against Infant Deaths from Infectious Diseases in Brazil»,The Lancet, 1987, nº 2, pp. 319321. Citado en Fitzroy Henry, André Briend y Vincent Fauveau, «Child Survival: Should the Strategy Be Redesigned? Experience from Bangladesh»,Health Policy and Planning, Vol. 5, nº 3 (1990), p. 231; UNICEF/OMS/UNESCO, Para la Vida, 1989, p. 20.

194 Margaret E Bentley, «Sociocultural Factors Involved in an Intervention to Improve Weaning Practices in Kwara State, Nigeria» (artículo presentado en el Taller para la Mejora de las Prácticas Alimentarias de los Niños para Prevenir la Diarrea o Reducir su Gravedad: patrocinado por el Programa para el Control de las Enfermedades Diarreicas de la OMS y la Escuela de Higiene y Salud Pública de la Universidad Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, Maryland, 25-28 abril 2528 1988); Kenneth H. Brown, «Nutritional Status during Weaning and its Relation to Diarrheal Morbidity» (documento presentado en el mismo taller).

195 WH Mosley y LC Chen, «An Analytic Framework for the Study of Child Survival in Developing Countries», en W. Henry Mosley y Lincoln C. Chen, Eds., Child Survival (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984), pp. 2545. Citado por Kent, p. 66.

196 Ibíd.

197 Citado en USAID, Oral Rehydration Therapy: A Revolution in Child Survival. Oelgeschlager, Gunn & Hain, Weston MA, 1988. p. 16.

198 AM Molla et al., «Ricepowder Electrolyte Solution as Oral Therapy in Diarrhoea due to Vibrio Cholera and Escherichia Coli», The Lancet, 12 junio 1982, pp. 13171319; JW Kleevens, «Rice Water for Infant Gastroenteritis»,The Lancet, 8 agosto 1981; TF Ho, W CL Yip, JSH Tay y K Vellayappan, «Rice Water and Milk: Effect on Ileal Fluid Osmolality and Volume», The Lancet, 16 enero 1982, p. 169; FC Patra et al., «Is Oral Rice Electrolyte Solution Superior to Glucose Electrolyte Solution in Infantile Diarrhoea?»,Arch Dis Child, 57 (1982), pp. 910912; William B Greenough, III, «Status of CerealBased Oral Rehydration Therapy», enSymposium Proceedings, CerealBased Oral Rehydration Therapy: Theory and Practice (actas de un simposio patrocinado por la International Child Health Foundation y elNational Council for International Health, Washington, D.C., 17 febrero 1987), pp. 3031; Bradley Sack, «Global View of ORT»,Ibíd., p. 17; MK Bhan et al., «Comparison of Acceptability and Use of Different Home Made Solutions for Early Treatment of Diarrhoea in Rural Children», (artículo preparado para el Departamento de Pediatría, All India Institute of Medical Sciences); MK Bhan et al., «Efficacy of `Mung' Bean (Lentil) and Pop Rice Based Rehydration Solutions in Comparison with the Standard Glucose Electrolyte Solution» (artículo preparado para el Departamento de Pediatría,All India Institute of Medical Sciences); Daniel Pizarro et al., «RiceBased Oral Electrolyte Solutions for the Management of Infantile Diarrhea»,New England Journal of Medicine, 21 febrero 1991, pp. 517521; PR Kenya et al., «CerealBased Oral Rehydration Solutions», Archives of Diseases in Childhood, Vol. 64 (1989), pp. 10321035; «Recent Advances in the Development of Improved ORS» (informe publicado por el PCED de la OMS), p. 9.

199 TF Ho, William CL Yip, John SH Tay y K Vellayappan, «Rice Water and Milk: Effect on Ileal Fluid Osmolality and Volume», The Lancet, 16 enero 1982, p. 169; JWL Kleevens, «Rice Water for Infant Gastroenteritis», The Lancet, 8 agosto 1981, p. 306.

200 AM Molla et al., «RicePowder Electrolyte Solution as Oral Therapy in Diarrhoea due to Vibrio Cholera and Escherichia Coli», The Lancet, Vol. 1, nº 8285 (12 junio 1982), p. 1319.

201 OMS, «Oral Rehydration Therapy for Treatment of Diarrhoea in the Home» (documento de trabajo, 1986).

202 Carl E Taylor y Xu Zhao Yu, "Oral Rehydration in China", American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 76, nº 2 (febrero 1986), pp. 187189 (Citado enPRITECH's Technical Literature Update, Vol. 1, nº 6 (agosto 1986), p. 4); JWL Kleevens, «Rice Water for Infant Gastroenteritis»,The Lancet, 8 agosto 1981, p. 306.

203 George Davey Smith, «Beliefs and Action»,Links Health and Development Report, Vol. 7, nº 3/4 (otoño/invierno 1990), p. 13.

204 OMS, «Oral Rehydration Therapy for Treatment of Diarrhoea in the Home» (documento de trabajo, 1986).

205 AM Molla et al., «RicePowder Electrolyte Solution as Oral Therapy in Diarrhoea due to Vibrio Cholera and Escherichia Coli», The Lancet, Vol. 1, nº 8285 (12 junio 1982), p. 1317-1319; WB Greenough III y AM Molla, «Cereal based Oral Rehydration Solutions», The Lancet, Vol. 2, nº 8302 (9 octubre 1982), p. 823. Vea también FC Patra, D Mahalanabis, KN Jalan, A Sen y P Banerjee, «Is Oral Rice Electrolyte Solution Superior to Glucose Electrolyte Solution in Infantile Diarrhoea?»,Arch Dis Child, nº 57 (1982), pp. 910912; D Mahalanabis, MH Merson, D Barua, «Oral Rehydration Therapy—Recent Advances», World Health Forum, Vol. 2, nº 2 (1981), pp. 245249; William B Greenough, III, «Status of CerealBased Oral Rehydration Therapy», en Symposium Proceedings, CerealBased Oral Rehydration Therapy: Theory and Practice (actas de un simposio patrocinado por laInternational Child Health Foundation y elNational Council for International Health, Washington, D.C., 17 febrero 1987), pp. 3031; AN Alam, SA Sarker, AM Molla, MM Rahaman y WB Greenough, «Hydrolysed Wheat Based Oral Rehydration Solution for Acute Diarrhoea», Archives of Disease in Childhood, Vol. 62, p. 440-444, 1987.

206 FC Patra et al., «Is Oral Rice Electrolyte Solution Superior to Glucose Electrolyte Solution in Infantile Diarrhoea?»,Arch Dis Child, nº 57 (1982), pp. 910912; D Mahalanabis, «Development of an Improved Formulation of Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS) with Antidiarrhoeal and Nutritional Properties: a `Super ORS'» (documento publicado por el PCED de la OMS), p. 9; «ORT Today and Tomorrow»,Dialogue on Diarrhoea, nº 41 (junio 1990), p. 1; P Lepage et al., «Food based Oral Rehydration Salt Solution for Acute Childhood Diarrhoea», Citado en Dialogue on Diarrhoea, nº 41 (junio 1990), p. 4; A Bari et al., «Community Study of Rice Based ORS in Rural Bangladesh», ICDDR, Bangladesh, Citado en Dialogue on Diarrhoea, nº 41 (junio 1990), p. 5; «Roundtable: The Politics of the Solution»,Links Health and Development Report, Vol. 7, nº 3/4 (otoño/invierno 1990), p. 12 (comentario de Norbert Hirschhorn); William B Greenough, III, «Status of CerealBased Oral Rehydration Therapy», enSymposium Proceedings, CerealBased Oral Rehydration Therapy: Theory and Practice (actas de un simposio patrocinado por la International Child Health Foundation y elNational Council for International Health, Washington, D.C., 17 febrero 1987), pp. 3031; UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1987, p. 39; MK Bhan et al., «Comparison of Acceptability and Use of Different Home Made Solutions for Early Treatment of Diarrhoea in Rural Children», (artículo preparado para el Departamento de Pediatría, All India Institute of Medical Sciences); MK Bhan et al., «Efficacy of `Mung' Bean (Lentil) and Pop Rice Based Rehydration Solutions in Comparison with the Standard Glucose Electrolyte Solution» (artículo preparado para el Departamento de Pediatría,All India Institute of Medical Sciences); «Household Management of Diarrhea and Acute Respiratory Infections» (Monografía nº12, «Report of a Scientific Meeting at the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health in Collaboration with the UNICEF and the Diarrhoeal Diseases and Acute Respiratory Infections Control Programmes of the World Health Organization», noviembre 1990), p. 6; «More on RiceBased ORS for Children with Diarrhoea», Essential Drugs Monitor (publicación del Programa de Acción sobre Medicinas Esenciales y Vacunas de la OMS, nº 11 (1991), p. 14; «RiceBased ORS»,Update (publicación del PCED de la OMS, nº 7 (agosto 1990), p. 3; «Recent Advances in the Development of Improved ORS» (informe publicado por el PCED de la OMS), pp. 79; «Notes on the Composition and Presentation of Products for Oral Rehydration» (informe publicado por el PCED de la OMS), p. 2; D Pizarro, G Posada, L Syi y JR Morán, «Ricebased Oral Electrolyte Solutions for the Management of Infantile Diarrhea», New England Journal of Medicine, 324 (1991), pp. 517521.

207 «25 Years of ORS: Joint WHO/ICDDR,B Consultive Meeting on ORS Formulation» OMS, 1994, p. 3.

208 Norbert Hirschhorn y William B Greenough III, «Progress in Oral Rehydration Therapy», Scientific American, Vol. 264, nº 5 (mayo 1991), p. 54; D Mahalanabis, «Development of an Improved Formulation of Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS) with Antidiarrhoeal and Nutritional Properties: a `Super ORS'» (publicación del PCED de la OMS), p. 2; Bradley Sack, «Global View of ORT», en Symposium Proceedings, CerealBased Oral Rehydration Therapy: Theory and Practice (actas de un simposio patrocinado por la International Child Health Foundation y el National Council for International Health, Washington, D.C., 17 febrero 1987, p. 16); UNICEF,Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1987, p. 39; Robert Halpern, «A Child Survival and Development Revolution?»,International Journal of Early Childhood, Vol. 18, nº 1 (1986), pp. 4849.

209 MK Bhan et al., «Efficacy of `Mung' Bean (Lentil) and Pop Rice Based Rehydration Solutions in Comparison with the Standard Glucose Electrolyte Solution» (artículo preparado para el Departamento de Pediatría,All India Institute of Medical Sciences), p. 8, p. 9, p. 11.

210 Division of Diarrhoeal and Acute Respiratory Disease Control—Interim Report 1994, OMS, 1995, p. 69

211 «25 Years of ORS: Joint WHO/ICDDR,B Consultive Meeting on ORS Formulation», Dhaka, Bangladesh, 10-12 diciembre 1994, p. 1.

212 Ibíd., p.3

213 PCED de la OMS, Report of the Twelfth Meeting of the Technical Advisory Group (Génova, 1822 marzo 1991), p. 13.

214 A partir de cartas y comunicacioón personal con dirigentes de la International Child Health Foundation, Columbia, Maryland.

215 William B Greenough, III, «Status of CerealBased Oral Rehydration Therapy», en Symposium Proceedings, CerealBased Oral Rehydration Therapy: Theory and Practice (actas de un simposio patrocinado por laInternational Child Health Foundation y elNational Council for International Health, Washington, D.C., 17 febrero 1987), pp. 3031; Bradley Sack, "Global View of ORT",Ibíd., p. 17.

216 Vea, por ejemplo, K Siener, «Wheat based ORS for Afghans», International Rescue Committee, Peshawar, Pakistán (Citado enDialogue on Diarrhoea, nº 41 (junio 1990), pp. 45), para el trigo; y P Lepage et al., «Food based Oral Rehydration Salt Solution for Acute Childhood Diarrhoea» (Citado enDialogue on Diarrhoea, nº 41 (junio 1990), p. 4), para elsorgo; Bradley Sack, «Global View of ORT», enSymposium Proceedings, CerealBased Oral Rehydration Therapy: Theory and Practice (actas de un simposio patrocinado por laInternational Child Health Foundation y elNational Council for International Health, Washington, D.C., 17 febrero 1987), p. 17, para el maíz.

217 William B Greenough, III, «Status of CerealBased Oral Rehydration Therapy», en Symposium Proceedings, CerealBased Oral Rehydration Therapy: Theory and Practice (actas de un simposio patrocinado por laInternational Child Health Foundation y elNational Council for International Health, Washington, D.C., 17 febrero 1987), pp. 3031; P Howard et al., «Proposed Use of Sweet Potato Water as a Fluid for Oral Rehydration Therapy for Diarrhoea», Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research, Goroka, Papua Nueva Guinea (Citado en Dialogue on Diarrhoea, nº 41 (junio 1990), p. 4); Bradley Sack, «Global View of ORT», enSymposium Proceedings, CerealBased Oral Rehydration Therapy: Theory and Practice (actas de un simposio patrocinado por la International Child Health Foundation y elNational Council for International Health, Washington, D.C., 17 febrero 1987), p. 17.

218 SS Buccimazza, ID Hill, MA Kibel y MD Bowie, «The Composition of Homemade Sugar/Electrolyte Solutions for Treating Gastroenteritis», South Africa Medical Journal, Vol. 70 (6 diciembre 1986), p. 730.

219 Molla AM, Ahmed SM y Greenough III WB, «Rice-based Oral Rehydration Solution Decreases Stool Volume in Acute Diarrhoea.» Bulletin of the WHO, 63:4, 1985, pp 751-56; FC Patra et al., «Is Oral Rice Electrolyte Solution Superior to Glucose Electrolyte Solution in Infantile Diarrhoea?»,Arch Dis Child, 57 (1982), pp. 910912; D Mahalanabis, «Development of an Improved Formulation of Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS) with Antidiarrhoeal and Nutritional Properties: a `Super ORS'» (publicación del PCED de la OMS), p. 9; «ORT Today and Tomorrow»,Dialogue on Diarrhoea, nº 41 (junio 1990), p. 1; P Lepage et al., «Food based Oral Rehydration Salt Solution for Acute Childhood Diarrhoea», Citado en Dialogue on Diarrhoea, nº 41 (junio 1990), p. 4; A Bari et al., «Community Study of Rice Based ORS in Rural Bangladesh», International Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Bangladesh, Citado en Dialogue on Diarrhoea, nº 41 (junio 1990), p. 5; «Roundtable: The Politics of the Solution», Links Health and Development Report, Vol. 7, nº 3/4 (otoño/invierno 1990), p. 12 (comentario de Norbert Hirschhorn).

220 USAID, Oral Rehydration Therapy: A Revolution in Child Survival. Oelgeschlager, Gunn & Hain, Weston MA, 1988. p. 25. También Molla AM, Ahmed SM y Greenough III WB, «Rice-based Oral Rehydration Solution Decreases Stool Volume in Acute Diarrhoea.», Bulletin of the WHO, 63:4, 1985, pp 751-56.

221 JC Waterlow y PR Payne, «The Protein Gap»,Nature, Vol 258, nov. 13, 1976, p. 117; David Morley y Margaret Woodly,See How They Grow, Monitoring Child Growth for Appropriate Health Care in Developing Countries, Macmillan Press, 1979, p. 80.

222 V Fauveau, M Yunus, M Shafiqul Islam, A Briend y ML Bennish, «Does ORT Reduce Diarrhoeal Mortality?»,Health Policy and Planning, Vol. 7 (1992), nº 3, pp. 243250; Juliana Yartey, Francis Nkrumah, Hiroki Hori, Kofi Harrison y Doris Armar, «Clinical Trial of Fermented Maize-based Oral Rehydration Solution in the Management of Acute Diarrhoea in Children», Annals of Tropical Paediatrics, (1995), 15, 61-68.

223 Carol P MacCormack, «Health and the Social Power of Women», Social Science and Medicine, 26 nº 7 (1988), p. 677. Citado en Kent, p. 115.

224 Raj. K Sachar et al., «HomeBased Education of Mothers in Treatment of Diarrhoea with Oral Rehydration Solution», Journal of Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Vol. 3, nº 1 (marzo 1985), p. 30; V Fauveau, M Yunus, M Shafiqul Islam, A Briend y ML Bennish, «Does ORT Reduce Diarrhoeal Mortality?», Health Policy and Planning, Vol. 7 (1992), nº 3, pp. 243250.

225 N Hirschhorn y WB Greenough III, «Progress in Oral Rehydration Therapy», Scientific American, Vol. 264, nº 5 (mayo 1991), p. 54; «Roundtable: The Politics of the Solution», Links Health and Development Report, Vol. 7, nº 3/4 (otoño/invierno 1990), p. 12 (comentario de Norbert Hirschhorn).

226 C MacCormack y A Draper, Cultural Meanings of Oral Rehydration Salts in Jamaica, 1988, p. 285, deThe Context of Medicines in Developing Countries: Studies in Pharmaceutical Anthropology, 1988, editado por Shaak Van Der Geest y Susan Reynolds Whyte.

227 David Werner y Bill Bower, Aprendiendo a Promover la Salud, 1990, pp. 461-466.

228 Dialogue on Diarrhoea, nº 41 (junio 1990), p. 1.

229 Juliana Yartey, Francis Nkrumah, Hiroki Hori, Kofi Harrison y Doris Armar, «Clinical Trial of Fermented Maize-based Oral Rehydration Solution in the Management of Acute Diarrhoea in Children», Annals of Tropical Paediatrics, (1995) 15, pp. 61, 67.

230 PCED de la OMS, Interim Programme Report 1990, p. 23.

231 Estudio sin publicar de Helen Murphy, Mojid Molla, Abdul Bari y Norbert Hirschhorn, con familias de refugiados afganos. (Este estudio fue enviado al Journal of Tropical Paediatrics, cuyos evaluadores dijeron que la TRO basada en cereales ya estaba probada, ¿para qué otro artículo?)

232 D Mahalanabis, «Development of an Improved Formulation of Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS) with Antidiarrhoeal and Nutritional Properties: A `Super ORS'» (publicado por el PCED de la OMS), p. 9; Roger M Goodall, «Editorial Perspective», Journal of Diarrhoeal Disease Research, 3 (4) (diciembre 1985), pp. 197198.

233 PCED de la OMS, Report of the Twelfth Meeting of the Technical Advisory Group (Génova, 18-22 marzo 1991), p. 13.

234 Taller sobre «Improving Young Child Feeding in Eastern and Southern Africa» patrocinado por UNICEF, SIDA (la Swedish International Development Authority) y IDRC (el Canadian International Development Research Committee) y celebrado en Nairobi, Kenia, en octubre de 1987, que proporcionó documentos sustanciales sobre los beneficios de los atoles fermentados y la harina germinada como alimentos para el destete. Vea A Tomkins, D Alnwick y P Haggerty, «Fermented Foods for Improving Child Feeding in Eastern y Southern Africa: A Review», en D Alnwick, S Moses y OG Schmidt (Eds.), Improving Young Child Feeding in Eastern y Southern Africa: HouseholdLevel Food Technology—Actas de un taller celebrado en Nairobi, Kenya, 1216 octubre 1987, p. 136.

235 J Yartey, F Nkrumah, H Hori, K Harrison y D Armar, «Clinical Trial of Fermented Maize-based Oral Rehydration Solution in the Management of Acute Diarrhoea in Children»,Annals of Tropical Paediatrics, (1995) 15, pp. 61- 68; Mensah PPA, Tomkins AM, Drasar BS, Harrison TJ, «Effect of Fermentation of Ghanaian Maize Dough on the Survival and Proliferation of Four Strains of Shigella Flexneri»,Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, (1988) 82, pp. 635-636; Mensah et al, «Fermentation of Cereals for Reduction of Bacterial Contamination of Weaning Foods in Ghana»,The Lancet (1990), 336: pp. 140-143; Nout MJR, Rombouts FM, Hautvast GJ, «Accelerated Natural Lactic Acid Fermentation of Infant Food Formulations»,International Journal of Food Microbiology, (1989) Jul. 8(4) pp. 351-361 (Citado por Yartey).

236 David Werner, «Egypt: Another Approaching Storm in the Desert», Newsletter from the Sierra Madre, junio, 1991, p. 1-11. (documentos de HealthWrights)

237 A Tomkins, D Alnwick y P Haggerty, «Fermented Foods for Improving Child Feeding in Eastern and Southern Africa: A Review», en D Alnwick, S Moses y OG Schmidt (Eds.), Improving Young Child Feeding in Eastern and Southern Africa: HouseholdLevel Food Technology—Actas de un taller celebrado en Nairobi, Kenya, 1216 octubre 1987, p. 138; Patience PA Mensah, Andrew Tomkins y Bohumil Drasar, «Fermented Food: Reducing Contamination»,Dialogue on Diarrhoea, nº 40 (marzo 1990), p. 3.

238 Ibíd., A Tomkins et al., p. 138.

239 Ibíd., p. 157.

240 Ibíd., «Executive Summary», p. xv.

241 Ibíd., p. 138.

242 KH Brown, KL Dickin, ME Bentley, GA Oni, VT Obasaju, SA Esrey, S Mebrahtu, I Alade y RY Stallings, «Consumption of Weaning Foods from Fermented Cereals in Kwara State, Nigeria», en D Alnwick, S Moses y OG Schmidt (Eds.), Improving Young Child Feeding in Eastern and Southern Africa: HouseholdLevel Food Technology—Actas de un taller celebrado en Nairobi, Kenya, 1216 octubre 1987, p. 138, pp. 186187; «Solving the Weanling's Dilemma: PowerFlour to Fuel the Gruel?», The Lancet, Vol. 338, 7 septiembre 1991, pp. 604605.

243 KH Brown, KL Dickin, ME Bentley, GA Oni, VT Obasaju, SA Esrey, S Mebrahtu, I Alade y RY Stallings, «Consumption of Weaning Foods from Fermented Cereals in Kwara State, Nigeria», en D Alnwick, S Moses y OG Schmidt (Eds.),

PARTE 3

1 T McKeown y CR Lowe, An Introduction to Social Medicine, Blackwell, Oxford, 1974, p. 237.

2 Weekly Reports of the Department of Health, New York City, vol. ZZI, nº 50, 17 diciembre 1932, p 396, citado en Walsh McDermott, Modern medicine and the demographic-disease pattern of overly traditional societies: a technological misfit, citado también en Assignment Children 61/62, UNICEF, 1983.

3 Edgar Mohs, «Changing Health Paradigms in Costa Rica», Reaching Health for All, eds. Jon Rohde, Meera Chatterjee y David Morley, Oxford University Press, 1993, p. 391.

4 Thomas McKeown, The Role of Medicine: Dream, Mirage or Nemesis? (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1979), pp. 50-55.

5 Thomas McKeown, The Role of Medicine: Dream Mirage or Nemesis?, Nuffield Provincial Hospitals Trust, 1976, p. 40.

6 La información de esta sección está extraida de David Sanders y Richard Carver, The Struggle for Health: Medicine and the Politics of Underdevelopment (London: Macmillan, 1985), pp. 25-37.

7 Alastair Gray, ed., World Health and Disease (Buckingham, England: Open University Press, 1993), p. 58.

8 Ibíd.

9 Ibíd.

10 David Sanders, The Struggle for Health: Medicine and the Politics of Underdevelopment (London: Macmillan, 1985), p. 31; David Alnwick, «The Weight, Length and Mid Upper Arm Circumference of Kenyan Children in Nairobi Nursery Schools», Unicef Social Statistics Bulletin, Vol. 3, nº 1, 1980.

11 Alastair Gray, ed., World Health and Disease (Buckingham, England: Open University Press, 1993), p. 61.

12 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1993, p. 26.

13 D Sanders, The Struggle for Health, p. 49.

14 De un discurso de Douglass en New York en 1857. James MacGregor Burns y Stewart Burns, A People's Charter: The Pursuit of Rights in America (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1991), portada.

15 «Multinationals—The Facts», The New Internationalist, agosto 1993, p. 18.

16 Frances Moore Lappé y Rachel Schurman, The Missing Piece in the Population Puzzle, Food First Development Report
nº 4 (San Francisco: Institute for Food and Development Policy, 1988), p. 20. Citado en Kent, p. 127.

17 Hal Kane, The Hour of Departure: Forces that Create Refugees and Migrants, Worldwatch Institute, junio 1995, p. 15.

18 Anne E Platt, Infecting Ourselves: How Environmental and Social Disruptions Trigger Disease, Worldwatch Institute, abril 1996, p. 26.

19 D Sanders, The Struggle for Health, p. 68.

20 Martin Brockerhoff, «Child Survival in Big Cities: The Disadvantages of Migrants», Social Science and Medicine,
Vol. 40, nº 10, mayo 1995, pp. 1371-1383.

21 Giovanni Andea Cornia, Richard Jolly y Frances Stewart, eds, Ajuste con Rostro Humano, Volumen 1, Protegiendo a los Vulnerables y Promoviendo el Crecimiento, (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1987, p. 6).

22 Kent, p. 69.

23 Kent, pp. 164-165.

24 Kent, p. 165.

25 Hilary F French, «Forging a New Partnership», State of the World 1995, Worldwatch Institute, 1995, p. 176.

26 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1989, p. 15.

27 Entre los bancos estadounidenses involucrados estaban el Banker's Trust, Bank of America, Chase Manhattan, Chemical, Citicorp, Continental, Illinois, First Chicago, Manufacturers Hanover y Morgan Guaranty. Fuente: «A Review of Bank Performance, 1986», New Internationalist, noviembre 1988, p. 16.

28 Periodistas del Tercer Mundo, Third World Guide, 1986-87 (New York: Grove Press, 1987), p. 548.

29 Citado por Ned Daly, «Empty promises at the Social Summit» Multinational Monitor, abril 1995, p. 6-7.

30 Chakravarthi Raghavan, «World's Poor Got Poorer in 1980s», Third World Resurgence, nº 10 (junio 1991), p. 10.

31 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1989, p. 15.

32 Gary Gardner, «Third World Debt Still Growing», Vital Signs 1995, Worldwatch Institute, 1995, p. 73.

33 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1989, p. 15.

34 Ibíd., p. 15

35 Medea Benjamin y Kevin Danaher, «Latin America's Struggle for Democratic Development», Global Exchanges (revista de Global Exchange), nº11 (verano 1992), p. 6.

36 Chakravarthi Raghavan, «World's Poor Got Poorer in 1980s», Third World Resurgence, nº 10 (junio 1991), p. 10.

37 Grant, p. 85.

38 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1992, p. 16.

39 Gary Gardner, «Third World Debt Still Growing», Vital Signs 1995, The Trends That Are Shaping Our Future, Worldwatch Institute, 1995, p. 72.

40 Hal Kane, «Third World Debt Still Rising», Vital Signs 1994, Worldwatch Institute, 1994, p. 75.

41 Medea Benjamin y Kevin Danaher, «Latin America's Struggle for Democratic Development», Global Exchanges (revista de Global Exchange), nº11 (verano 1992), p. 1.

42 Gary Gardner, «Third World Debt Still Growing», Vital Signs 1995, The Trends That Are Shaping Our Future, Worldwatch Institute, 1995, p. 72; John Darton, «In Poor, Decolonialized Africa, Bankers are Overlords», New York Times, 20 junio, 1994.

43 Medea Benjamin y Kevin Danaher, «Latin America's Struggle for Democratic Development», Global Exchanges (revista de Global Exchange), nº11 (verano 1992), p. 6.

44 Jesse Jackson, a 11 jefes de estado africanos, Libreville, Gabón, 27 mayo 1993.

45 «Reining in the IMF» (editorial), Multinational Monitor, junio 1991, p. 5.

46 Jonathan Cahn, «Challenging the New Imperial Authority: The World Bank and the Democratization of Development», Harvard Human Rights Journal 6 (1993): 160, Citado en David Korten, «When Corporations Rule the World», (Kumarian Press, West Hartford, Connecticut, 1995), p. 165.

47 Samir Amin, «Don't Adjust — Delink!», Toward Freedom, abril/mayo 1993, p. 2.

48 Imogen Evans, «SAPping Maternal Health», The Lancet,
Vol. 346, p. 1046, 21 octubre 1995.

49 UNICEF, Problems and Priorities Regarding Recurrent Costs (1988), p.12.

50 Medea Benjamin y Kevin Danaher, «Latin America's Struggle for Democratic Development», Global Exchanges (revista de Global Exchange), nº 11 (verano 1992), p. 6.

51 Andrea Bárcena, «Del 80 al 90% de Mexicanos Fue Desnutrido Infantil y Perdió Capacidad Física y Mental», Proceso, 1 junio 1987, p. 6.

52 David Werner y Jason Weston, «The Hidden Costs of Free Trade: Mexico Bites the Bullet», Newsletter from the Sierra Madre, nº 31, (HealthWrights) mayo 1995, p. 5.

53 «Update, Human Rights», New Internationalist, abril 1996, p. 6.

54 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1989, p. 2.

55 R Davies y D Sanders, «Economic Strategies, Structural Adjustment and Health Policy: Issues in Sub-Saharan Africa for the 1990s», Transformation 21, 1993, pp. 78-93; David Sanders y Adbulrahman Sambo, «AIDS in Africa: The Implications of Economic Recession and Structural Adjustment», Health Policy and Planning, Vol. 6 (1991), nº 2, p. 160.

56 Vea, por ejemplo, Robert Weissman, «The IMF and Labor Repression in Central America», Multinational Monitor, junio 1991, pp. 25-27.

57 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1989, pp. 30-31. Citado en Kent, p. 88.

58 Kent, p. 88.

59 Samir Amin, «Don't Adjust — Delink!», Toward Freedom, abril/mayo 1993, p. 2.

60 The New Internationalist, noviembre 1988, pp. 16-17.

61 Gary Gardner, «Third World Debt Still Growing», Vital Signs 1995, The Trends That Are Shaping Our Future, Worldwatch Institute, 1995, p. 72; Rafael Soifer, «Stealth Lending: The Quiet Return of LDC Debt», Banking Outlook (Brown Brothers Harriman & Co.), 29 septiembre 1994.

62 David Korten, «When Corporations Rule the World», (Kumarian Press, West Hartford, Connecticut, 1995), p. 171.

63 Ambas notas citadas en Ned Daly «Empty promises at UN summit», Multinational Monitor, abril 1995.

64 Dinyar Godrej, «Hunger in a world of plenty» New Internationalist, mayo 1995, p 7-10.

65 Lester Brown, Nicholas Lenssen, Hal Kane, Vital Statistics 1995, p. 146.

66 Speth JG, PNUD, 29/6/94, citado en The Social Summit Seen From the South, p. 31, Norwegian Summit for Environment and Development, 1995.

67 Ibíd.

68 Dinyar Godrej, «Hunger in a world of plenty» New Internationalist, mayo 1995, p 7-10; David Korten, «When Corporations Rule the World», (Kumarian Press, West Hartford, Connecticut, 1995), p. 83.

69 Dinyar Godrej, «Hunger in a world of plenty» New Internationalist, mayo 1995, p 7-10.

70 Ibíd.

71 David Korten, «When Corporations Rule the World», (Kumarian Press, West Hartford, Connecticut, 1995), p. 157.

72 William Greider, Who Will Tell the People? The Betrayal of American Society (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1992), p. 331.

73 Baby Milk Action, Profits Before Health, An Analysis of Nestlé's Baby Food Marketing Policy, mayo 1995, p. 3.

74 Russell Mokhiber, «Infant Formula: Hawking Disaster in the Third World»,Multinational Monitor, Vol. 8, nº 4 (abril 1987), p. 22; Marsha Walker, «A Fresh Look at the Risks of Artificial Infant Feeding», Journal of Human Lactation, 9(2) 1993, pp.97-98.

75 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1995, p. 21.

76 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1993, p. 44.

77 Ibíd.

78 Ibíd.

79 IBFAN, Protecting Infant Health, A Health Worker's Guide to the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes, 7ª edición, junio 1993, p. 8.

80 Ibíd., p. 9.

81 JD Clemens et al., «Breast Feeding and the Risk of Severe Cholera in Rural Bangladeshi Children», American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 131, nº 3 (1990), pp. 400-411.

82 CG Victora et al., «Evidence for Protection by Breast-Feeding Against Infant Deaths from Infectious Diseases in Brazil», The Lancet, 1987, nº 2, pp. 319-321. Citado en Fitzroy Henry, André Briend y Vincent Fauveau, «Child Survival: Should the Strategy Be Redesigned? Experience from Bangladesh», Health Policy and Planning, Vol. 5, nº 3 (1990), p. 231.

83 R Hogan y J Martinez, «Breastfeeding as an Intervention within Diarrheal Diseases Control Programs: OMS/CDD Activities», International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Vol. 31, Suplemento 1 (1990), pp. 115-119.

84 UNICEF/OMS/UNESCO, Para la Vida, 1989, p. 20.

85 BUNSO, «Breastmilk. Wasted Natural Resource», en Health Action Information Network (HAIN), Health Alert, Vol. VII, nº 122 (octubre 1991), p. 289.

86 Leonard A Sagan, The Health of Nations: True Causes of Sickness and Well-Being. Citado en Kent, p. 61.

87 UNICEF, «Breast-fedding and Health», Assignment Children, 55/56, 1981.

Cuestionando la Solución: Las Políticas de Atención Primaria de Salud y Supervivencia Infantil


88 Patti Rundall, «Nestle Boycott Success», Child (revista del International Child Health Group), abril 1993, p. 10; Red Internacional de Grupos de Acción pro Alimentación Infantil (IBFAN), Breaking the Rules, 1994, Un informe mundial sobre las violaciones del Código Internacional de Comercialización de Sucedáneos de la Leche Materna OMS/UNICEF, p. 27.

89 L Brenzel y N Hirschhorn, Executive Summary of the UNICEF Macro and Micro Studies (informe elaborado por John Snow, Inc.), p. 4. Los cinco países son Bolivia, Colombia, Indonesia, Kenia y Senegal.

90 Marmet, «Summary of Institutional Actions Affecting Breastfeeding», Journal of Human Lactation, 9(2), 1993, p. 110.

91 Felicity Savage King y Ann Burgess, Nutrition for Developing Countries, 2ª edición, 1992, Oxford University Press, p. 107.

92 Ibíd., IBFAN, p. 12.

93 Medea Benjamin y Andrea Freedman, Bridging the Global Gap: A Handbook to Linking Citizens of the First and Third Worlds (Washington, D.C.: Seven Locks Press, 1989), p. 142.

94 IBFAN, Protecting Infant Health, A Health Worker's Guide to the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes, 7ª edición, junio 1993, p. 11; Medea Benjamin y Andrea Freedman, Bridging the Global Gap: A Handbook to Linking Citizens of the First and Third Worlds (Washington, D.C.: Seven Locks Press, 1989), p. 142.

95 Patti Rundall, «Nestle Boycott Success», Child (revista del International Child Health Group), abril 1993, p. 10.

96 Ibíd.

97 Medea Benjamin y Andrea Freedman, Bridging the Global Gap: A Handbook to Linking Citizens of the First and Third Worlds (Washington, D.C.: Seven Locks Press, 1989), p. 143; «Nestle's Again», World Development Forum, Vol. 6, nº 18 (15 octubre 1988), p. 4.

98 Patti Rundall, «Nestle Boycott Success», Child (revista del International Child Health Group), abril 1993, p. 10.

99 IBFAN, Breaking the Rules, 1994, Un informe mundial sobre las violaciones del Código Internacional de Comercialización de Sucedáneos de la Leche Materna OMS/UNICEF, p. 27-29.

100 Baby Milk Action, Profits Before Health, An Analysis of Nestlé's Baby Food Marketing Policy, mayo 1995, p. 4.

101 Patti Rundall, «Nestle Boycott Success», Child, abril 1993,
p. 10.

102 John W Egan, Harlow N Higinbotham y J Fred Weston, Economics of the Pharmaceutical Industry, (Praeger Publishers) 1982, p. 4; Standard and Poor's Industry Surveys, abril 1995, p. H19; Meri Koivusalo, Eeva Ollila, International Organizations and Health Policies, (Stakes/Hedec) Helsinki, 1996, p. 175.

103 «Golden Pills», The Economist, 20 marzo 1993, p. 74. Esta estimación, como toda la información de este artículo, esta tomada de un estudio de la Oficina de Análisis Tecnológico. El estudio define `ganancias excesivas' como las ganancias que superan a las que son necesarias para estimular la inversión en investigación y desarollo.

104 Peretz SM, «Pharmaceuticals in the Third World: the problem from the suppliters point of view», World Development, 1983:11:(259-64), Citado en Meri Koivusalo, Eeva Ollila, International Organizations and Health Policies, (Stakes/Hedec) Helsinki, 1996, p. 175.

105 Andrew Chetley, Problem Drugs, Zed Books, 1995, p. 9.

106 Askin, «Pills, Potions and Placebos», Environmental Action, Vol. 17, nº 5 (marzo/abril 1986), p. 25.

107 OMS, The Management of Diarrhea, Practical Guidelines, Tercera Edición, 1993, p. 24.

108 Iris Rosendahl, «Antacids/Antidiarrheals Churn up Sales Gains», Drug Topics, Vol. 135, nº 14, 22 julio 1991, p. 55.

109 Askin, «Pills, Potions and Placebos», Environmental Action, Vol. 17, nº 5 (marzo/abril 1986), p. 23.

110 Christopher Scanlan, «Unsafe Drugs Find Buyers Abroad», Detroit Free Press, 20 mayo 1991, p. 4A.

111 Ibíd., p. 1.

112 Ibíd.

113 Dianna Melrose, Bitter Pills: Medicines and the Third World Poor (Oxford: OXFAM, 1982), p. 113. Muchos ejemplos parecidos aparecen en Bitter Pills, Milton Silverman, The Drugging of the Americas (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976) y Michael Tan, Dying for Drugs: Pill Power and Politics in the Philippines (Quezon City, Filipinas: Health Action Information Network, 1988).

114 Christopher Scanlan, «Unsafe Drugs Find Buyers Abroad», Detroit Free Press, 20 mayo 1991, p. 4A.

115 Steve Askin. «Pills, Potions and Placebos», Environmental Action, Vol. 17, nº 5 (marzo/abril 1986), p. 23.

116 «Disadvantages of the Irrational Use of Drugs for Diarrhoea», Essential Drugs Monitor (publicación del Programa de Acción sobre Medicinas Esenciales y Vacunas de la OMS), nº 11 (1991), p. 11.

117 David Sanders, The Struggle for Health: Medicine and the Politics of Underdevelopment (London: Macmillan, 1985), p. 136.

118 Milton Silverman, The Drugging of the Americas, University of California Press, 1976, p. 119-120; Dr. K Balasubramaniam, «Retail Drug Prices in the Asia-Pacific Region», HAInews, Consumers International para Health Action International, Penang, Malaysia, nº 86, diciembre 1995.

119 David Werner, «Dying for Doctors», The New Internationalist, nº 182 (abril 1988), p. 9; David Werner y Bill Bower, Aprendiendo a Promover la Salud, 1990, p. 349.

120 Joel Lexchin, «Pharmaceutical Promotion in the Third World», Journal of Drug Issues, 22(2), primavera 1992, p. 420.

121 Ibíd.

122 Ibíd., p. 421.

123 «Drug Prices», Health Letter (la revista del Grupo de Investigación sobre Salud de Public Citizen), p. 11.

124 David Sanders, The Struggle for Health: Medicine and the Politics of Underdevelopment (London: Macmillan, 1985), p. 137; «Drug Prices», Health Letter (la revista del Grupo de Investigación sobre Salud de Public Citizen), p. 11.


Referencias: Parte 3

125 Milton Silverman, Philip R Lee y Mia Lydecker, Prescriptions for Death: The Drugging of the Third World, University of California Press, 1982, p. 124.

126 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1993, p. 52.

127 Milton Silverman, Mia Lydecker, Philip R. Lee, Bad Medicine, Stanford University Press, 1992, pp. 129-136.

128 Ibíd., pp. 140-141.

129 Vea, por ejemplo, «Baker Urges Cutting Off of Funds if UN Agencies Upgrade PLO», New York Times, 2 mayo 1989,
p. A6.

130 Askin, «Pills, Potions and Placebos», Environmental Action, Vol. 17, nº 5 (marzo/abril 1986), p. 26.

131 Andrew Chetley y Wilbert Bannenberg, «Skirmishes in the Pill Jungle», South, febrero 1986, p. 64.

132 Ibíd.

133 Ibíd.

134 Ibíd.

135 Anita Harden, Health Action International, como se informa en Koivusalo Meri y Ollila Eeva, International Health Policies with Special Reference to the OMS, World Bank and UNICEF, 1995, evaluación independiente no publicada, pp. 48-49.

136 Koivusalo Meri y Ollila Eeva, International Health Policies with Special Reference to the OMS, World Bank and UNICEF, 1995, evaluación independiente no publicada, p. 49.

137 Orr, «Rexall for Profits», Dollars and Sense, nº 128 (julio/agosto 1987), p. 21.

138 OMS, The Rational Use of Drugs in the Treatment of Acute Diarrhoea in Children, 1990.

139 Olle Hansson, Inside Ciba-Geigy (The Hague: International Organization of Consumer Unions, 1989), pp. 21-22.

140 Olle Hansson, Inside Ciba-Geigy (The Hague: International Organization of Consumer Unions, 1989), pp. 14-24; Milton Silverman, Philip R Lee y Mia Lydecker, Prescriptions for Death: The Drugging of the Third World (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982), pp. 48-49.

141 Olle Hansson, Inside Ciba-Geigy (The Hague: International Organization of Consumer Unions, 1989).

142 Ibíd., pp. 14-15.

143 Ibíd., p. 15.

144 Ibíd., pp. 25-28, pp. 59-62; Milton Silverman, Philip R. Lee y Mia Lydecker, Prescriptions for Death: The Drugging of the Third World (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982), pp. 47-48.

145 Ibíd., Hansson, pp 8-11.

146 Ibíd., p. 13. Este fue el número final de víctimas reconocido oficialmente; el número real puede haber llegado hasta los 20.000 ó 30.000.

147 Este era el total a mediados de 1985. Ibíd., p. 211.

148 Ibíd., p. 10; Milton Silverman, Philip R Lee y Mia Lydecker, Prescriptions for Death: The Drugging of the Third World (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1982), p. 49.

149 Ibíd., Silverman, p. 49, pp. 52-58.

150 Olle Hansson, Inside Ciba-Geigy (The Hague: International Organization of Consumer Unions, 1989), p. 14, p. 204.

151 «Antidiarrhoeals in Latin America», HAI News, nº 58 (abril 1991), p. 5.

152 Programme for the Control of Diarrhoeal Disease: Interim Programme Report 1992, OMS, 1993 p. 54.

153 Programme for the Control of Diarrhoeal Disease: Ninth Programme Report 1992-1993, OMS, 1994 p. 103.

154 Tanto David Werner como David Sanders asistieron a esta conferencia.

155 «Comment», The Kangaroo: Bibliographic Archives for Maternal and Child Health in Developing Countries, Vol. 1, nº 1 (diciembre 1992), p. 23.

156 Esta lista de patrocinadores estaba en el programa impreso del Simposio Internacional sobre TRO Basada en Alimentos, noviembre 1214, 1989, the Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistán.

157 Observaciones hechas por los autores, hablando con los participantes del encuentro.

158 M Silverman, PR Lee y M Lydecker, Prescriptions for Death: The Drugging of the Third World, pp. 119130; M Silverman, M Lydecker, PR Lee, Bad Medicine, Stanford University Press, 1992, pp. 238-240; D Melrose, Bitter Pills: Medicines and the Third World poor, OXFAM, 1982, pp. 83-85.

159 Michael Renner, Budgeting for Disarmament: The Costs of War and Peace, Worldwatch paper 122, noviembre 1994, p. 5.

160 PNUD, Informe sobre el Desarrollo Humano 1994 (New York y Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1994). Citado en Michael Renner, Budgeting for Disarmament: The Costs of War and Peace, Worldwatch paper 122, noviembre 1994, p. 10.

161 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1996, p. 13.

162 Ryall Forsberg, «Force Without Reason», Boston Review,
vol XX nº 3.

163 Marek Thee, «The Third Special Session of the UN General Assembly Devoted to Disarmament: between Armaments and Disarmament», Transnational Perspectives, Vol. 14, nº 3 (1988), pp. 6-11.

164 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1996, p. 25.

165 «We Arm the World: US is Number One Weapons Dealer», The Defense Monitor, Vol. XX, nº 4 (1991), p. 3.

166 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1987, p. 17. Citado en Kent, pp. 98-99.

167 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1986, p. 72.

168 Ibíd.

169 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1990, p. 1.

170 Oscar Arias Sánchez, «Demilitarisation the Key to Development», Third World Resurgence, nº 11 (julio 1991),
p. 9.

171 Kent, p. 117.

172 Kent, pp. 111-112. Kent cita a Ruth Leger Sivard, World Military and Social Expenditures 1986 (Washington, D.C.: World Priorities, 1986), pp. 24, 36-41.

Cuestionando la Solución: Las Políticas de Atención Primaria de Salud y Supervivencia Infantil


173 Ibíd., pp. 117-118.

174 Ibíd., p. 112.

175 Ibíd., p. 112.

176 RL Sivard, World Military and Social Expenditures, 1987-88, p. 5.

177 Susan George, A Fate Worse than Debt, p. 22; Oscar Arias Sanchez, «Demilitarisation the Key to Development», Third World Resurgence, nº 11 (julio 1991), p. 9.

178 Lappé y Collins, World Hunger: Twelve Myths, p. 118.

179 Frances Moore Lappé, Rachel Schurman y Kevin Danaher, Betraying the National Interest (Grove Press, 1987), p. 11.

180 Ibíd., p. 31.

181 Michael Renner, Budgeting for Disarmament: The Costs of War and Peace, Worldwatch paper 122, noviembre 1994, p. 6.

182 «Protecting Children from the Scourge of War», The Coordinators' Notebook: An International Resource for Early Childhood Development (publicación del Consultative Group on Early Childhood Care y Development), nº 10 (octubre 1991), p. 2.

183 Neil Boothby, «Children and War», Cultural Survival Quarterly, 10, nº 4 (1986), pp. 28-30. Citado en Kent, p. 95.

184 Kent, p. 95.

185 «Protecting Children from the Scourge of War», The Coordinators' Notebook: An International Resource for Early Childhood Development (publicación del Consultative Group on Early Childhood Care and Development), nº 10 (octubre 1991), p. 5.

186 Ibíd.

187 Philip Shenon, «Clinton to Act on Banning Many Types of War Mines», New York Times, 16 mayo 1996, p. A7.

188 Michael Renner, Budgeting for Disarmament: The Costs of War and Peace, Worldwatch paper 122, noviembre 1994, p. 20.

189 Philip Shenon, «Clinton to Act on Banning Many Types of War Mines», New York Times, 16 mayo 1996, p. A7.

190 «Health and Welfare in Iraq: Excerpts from the Report of the International Study Team», War Watch, nº 11-12 (noviembre-diciembre 1991), p. 5. Es un resumen del Informe del Equipo Internacional de Estudio sobre la Crisis del Golfo, una continuación del informe original del Equipo de Estudio de Harvard.

191 Associated Press, «Iraqi Civilian Deaths in War's Aftermath Estimated at 70,000: Precise Allied Bombing Crippled the Nation», San Francisco Chronicle, 9 enero 1992, p. A8.

192 Evaluation of Food and Nutrition Situation in Iraq, FAO report, 1995; citado en The Children are Dying, Ramsey Clark, FAO report et al. (World View Forum, Inc., 1996)

193 Associated Press, «Iraqi Civilian Deaths in War's Aftermath Estimated at 70,000: Precise Allied Bombing Crippled the Nation», San Francisco Chronicle, 9 enero 1992, p. A8.

194 Ex ministro de justicia Ramsey Clark en una entrevista de Granma, 12 marzo 1995. Del Institute of Global Communications.

195 Kent, p. 55.

196 Informado a David Werner por miembros del Ministerio de Salud durante su visita a Mozambique, septiembre 1987; Gill Walt y Julie Cliff, «The Dynamics of Health Policies in Mozambique 1975-85», Health Policy and Planning, 1(2): 148-158, 1986.

197 UNICEF, Ajuste con Rostro Humano.

198 A Creese, «User Charges for Health Care: A Review of Recent Experience»,Health Policy and Planning, 6(4) (1991), pp. 309-319; S Moses, F Manji, JE Bradley, NJ Nagelkerke, MA Malisa y FA Plummer, «Impact of User Fees on Attendance at a Referral Centre for Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Kenya», The Lancet, 1992, nº 340, pp. 463-466; CJ Waddington y KA Enyimayew, «A Price to Pay: The Impact of User Charges in Ashanti-Akim District, Ghana», International Journal of Health Planning and Management, Vol. 4 (1989), pp. 17-47.

199 Slim Haddam y Pierre Fournier, «Quality, Cost and Utilization of Health Services in Developing Countries. A Longitudinal Study in Zaire», Social Science and Medicine, Vol. 40, nº 6, marzo 1995, pp. 743-753.

200 Moses S, Manji F, Bradley JE, Nagelkerke NJ, Malisa MA, Plummer FA. «Impact of user fees on attendance at a referral centre for sexually transmitted diseases in Kenya.» The Lancet 1992; 340:463-6.

201 Editorial «Structural adjustment too painful» The Lancet,
Vol 344, 19 noviembre 1994, p 1377. La referencia para esta afirmación es Sanders D, Sambo A, «AIDS in Africa: the implication of economic recession and structural adjustment», Health Policy Planning 1991; 6: 157-65.

202 Editorial «Structural adjustment too painful», The Lancet.
Vol 344, 19 noviembre 1994, p.1377-1378. (Vea también The Lancet, 12 noviembre, p 1356.)

203 Alderman H, «Downturn and Economic Recovery in Ghana: Impacts on the Poor», 1991, Cornell Food and Nutrition Policy Program Monograph 10.

204 «World Bank's Cure for Donor Fatigue», The Lancet. Vol. 342, Number 8863, julio 1993, p. 63.

205 Enyimeyew, Cost and Financing of Drugs Supplied in Ghana—The Ashanti-Akim Experience, (documento presentado en la conferencia de la OMS, 1988, citado en Beyond Adjustment: Responding to the Health Crisis in Africa, Inter-Church Coalition on Africa (ICCAF), 1993.

206 David Werner, The Life and Death of Primary Health Care or The McDonaldization of Alma Ata, documento de HealthWrights, 1994, p. 6.

207 Banco Mundial, Informe sobre el Desarrollo Mundial 1993, Inversión en Salud, p. 157.

208 Banco Mundial, Informe sobre el Desarrollo Mundial 1993, Inversión en Salud, p. 2.

209 David Legge, «Applying the Leech» (crítica de Inversión en Salud, 1993, 16º Informe sobre el Desarrollo Mundial del Banco Mundial). Charla dada en la Conferencia Annual PHAA, Adelaida, Australia, 26 septiembre 1994. Datos extraidos de Inversión en Salud, tabla A5, p. 203.

210 Banco Mundial, Informe sobre el Desarrollo Mundial 1993, Inversión en Salud, p. 62.


Referencias: Parte 3

211 Legge D, «Investing in the Shaping of World Health Policy», preparado para el taller de AIDAB, NCEPH y PHA (Canberra, Australia, 31 agosto 1993) para discutir el 16º Informe sobre el Desarrollo Mundial, Inversión en Salud.

212 Werner D, «Health for No One by the Year 2000», Third World Resurgence, nº 21, 1992.

213 Ruck N, Stefanini A, «World Development Report 1993 - `Investing in Health'—Old Wine in New Bottles?» The Kangaroo, diciembre 1993.

214 Legge D, «Investing in the Shaping of World Health Policy», preparado para el taller de AIDAB, NCEPH y PHA (Canberra, Australia, 31 agosto 1993) para discutir el 16º Informe sobre el Desarrollo Mundial, Inversión en Salud.

215 «World Bank's Cure for Donor Fatigue», The Lancet. Vol. 342, Number 8863, julio 1993, p. 63.

216 Citado en Harry Qasserman, America Born and Reborn, (New York: Collier Books, 1983), pp. 89-90.

217 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 2000, pp. 84-87.

218 Ibíd.

219 «Brazil: the persistence of inequality» NACLA, Vol XXVII, nº 6, mayo/junio 1995, p. 16.

220 Ibíd.

221 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 2000, pp. 84-87.

222 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1993, p. 69.

223 Andrew L. Shapiro, We're Number One!: Where America Stands -and fall- in the New World Order (New York: Vintage Books, 1992), p. 189.

224 Banco Mundial, Informe sobre el Desarrollo Mundial 1993, Inversión en Salud, p. 4.

225 Associated Press, «U.S. Trails Poor Nations in Early Innoculation», Washington Post, 6 junio 1993; Associated Press, «Million Toddlers Said to need Vaccinations», Washington Post, 5 mayo 1995. Ambos citados en Anne E Platt,Infecting Ourselves: How Environmental and Social Disruptions Trigger Disease, Worldwatch Paper 129, abril 1996, p. 58; UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 2000, pp. 84-87.

226 We're Number One!: Where America Stands -and fall- in the New World Order (New York: Vintage Books, 1992), pp. 8-9.

227 Thomas J Lueck, «Tax Breaks for Companies Flow Despite Budget Cuts in New York», y Eric Schmitt, «Military Budget Would See Gains Under G.O.P. Plan, Pentagon Asks for Less», New York Times, 5 julio 1995.

228 Business Week, citado en «Life Imitates Shlock Art: Money Can't Buy You Love», Too Much, Council on International and Public Affairs, p. 4.

229 Cifras de la Oficina Presupuestaria del Congreso, como aparecen en Time, 10 octubre 1988, p. 29. Citado en George Kent, The Politics of Children's Survival (New York: Praeger, 1991), p. 83.

230 Victor W Sidel, «Health Care in the United States: A Thousand Points of Blight», Arthritis Care and Research, Vol. 5, nº 2 (junio 1992), p. 64.

231 Shapiro, pp. 20-21.

232 La estimación de 10.000 muertes infantiles por la causas relacionadas con el hambre y la pobreza procede de Sally Reed y R Craig Sautter, «Children of Poverty», Kappan Special Report, junio 1990, p. 3. Citado en Clarence Lusane, Pipe Dream Blues: Racism and the War on Drugs (Boston: South End Press, 1991), p 12. La estimación de 21.000 está calculada a partir del Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1995 de UNICEF, p. 73, comparando la TMM5 de EE.UU. (10 por 1000) con la de Finlandia (5 por 1000), estimando así que si las condiciones de los niños estadounidenses fueran tan buenas como en Finlandia, podrían evitarse la mitad de las 42.000 muertes anuales de niños menores de cinco años.

233 Economic Policy Institute, Washington, D.C., Citado en Walden Bello, Dark Victory: The United States, Structural Adjustment and Global Poverty, Pluto Press, 1994, p. 137.

234 «House Block Grants = Permanent & Immoral National Child Neglect» Children's Defense Fund, Washington, D.C., 28 marzo 1995, p. 1.

235 Ibíd. p. 1.

236 Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1995. p. 65.

237 Brynn Craffey, «A Killer Returns», Image (suplemento dominical del San Francisco Examiner), 14 junio 1992, pp. 6-13; Andrew L. Shapiro, We're Number One!: Where America Stands -and fall- in the New World Order (New York: Vintage Books, 1992), p. 20.

238 Shapiro, p. 4.

239 «Who says there are no more heros?» New York Times, 1 mayo 1995. p. 9. En un anuncio de la California Wellness Foundation.

240 Fingerhut LA, Kleinman JC, «International and Interstate Comparison of Homicide Among Young Males», JAMA, 1990, 263:24; pp. 3293-3295.

241 Ibíd., p. 270.

242 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1992, p. 22.

243 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1994, p. 46.

244 Estudio de la Universidad de Tufts citado en «U.S. Children Going Hungry, Study Says», San Francisco Chronicle, 15 junio 1993, p. A9.

245 «The State of Greed», US News and World Report, 17 junio 1996, p. 62-63. 1989 es el año más reciente analizado por el servicio de ingresos internos.

246 Cifras de la Oficina Presupuestaria del Congreso, como aparecen en Time, 10 octubre 1988, p. 29. Citado en George Kent, The Politics of Children's Survival (New York: Praeger, 1991), p. 83.

247 Shapiro, p. 16; UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 2000, pp.84-87.

248 Sally Reed y R Craig Sautter, «Children of Poverty», Kappan Special Report, junio 1990, p. 3. Citado en Clarence Lusane, Pipe Dream Blues: Racism and the War on Drugs (Boston: South End Press, 1991), p 12.

249 Shapiro, pp. 8-9.

250 Victor W Sidel, «Health Care in the United States: A Thousand Points of Blight», Arthritis Care and Research, Vol. 5, nº 2 (junio 1992), p. 64.

251 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1994, p. 46.

Cuestionando la Solución: Las Políticas de Atención Primaria de Salud y Supervivencia Infantil


252 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1994, p. 46.

253 «Health Index», Links, Vol. 9 nº 4, otoño 1992, p. 13.

254 Shapiro, p. 73.

255 Clarence Lusane, Pipe Dream Blues: Racism and the War on Drugs (Boston: South End Press, 1991), p. 23.

256 Shapiro, p. 17.

257 «Forgotten Americans» (editorial), American Health, noviembre 1990, pp. 41-42.

258 Estudio de 1990 dirigido por una comisión de 37 miembros que incluía al ex Cirujano General C Everett Koop y al encuestador George Gallup.

259 Ibíd.

260 UNICEF, El Progreso de las Naciones, 1995, p. 34.

261 Tom Peck y Christine Vida, «Media violence and its relationship to violent crime.» Copyright 1993. Artículo sin publicar.

262 Shapiro, p. 4.

263 «Affirmative Action is Under Election Year Attack», The Washington Spectator, 1 julio 1995, p. 3.

264 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 2000, p. 83-87.

265 Ibíd., p. 84.

266 Ibíd.

267 Ibíd., pp. 108.

268 Ibíd., pp. 84.

269 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1993, 1994, análisis comparativo.

270 Graham Hancock, Lords of Poverty: The Power, Prestige and Corruption of the International Aid Business, p. 131.

271 UNICEF Estado Mundial de la Infancia 2000, pp. 84.

272 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1993, p. 70.

273 UNICEF Estado Mundial de la Infancia 2000, pp. 84.

274 Ibíd., p. 104.

275 Ibíd., p. 104.

276 Ibíd., pp. 96.

277 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1989, p. 1.

278 JN Hobcraft, JW McDonald y SO Rutstein, «Socio-Economic Factors in Infant and Child Mortality: A Cross-national Comparison», Population Studies, 36 (1984), pp. 193-223. Citado en Kent, p. 112.

279 Alison Acker, Children of the Volcano (Westport, Connecticut: Lawrence Hill, 1986), p. 81. Citado en Kent, pp. 157-158.

280 Scott B Halstead, Julia A Walsh y Kenneth S Warren, eds., «Good Health at Low Cost» (Rockefeller Foundation, New York, 1985). Vea también Kenneth Warren, «Tropical Medicine vs. Tropical Health», Review of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 12, nº 1. Es el Segundo estudio, el cual remite al anterior informe Rockefeller, del que se han extraido las citas y hechos.

281 Scott B Halstead, Julia A Walsh y Kenneth S Warren, eds., «Good Health at Low Cost» (Rockefeller Foundation, New York, 1985), p. 246; Kenneth Warren, «Tropical Medicine vs. Tropical Health», Review of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 12, nº 1.

282 Halstead, Walsh y Warren, eds., Good Health at Low Cost, p. 243.

283 Ibíd., p. 242.

284 UNICEF, Ajuste con Rostro Humano: Protección de los Vulnerables y Promoción del Crecimiento (Madrid: Siglo XXI de España editores, S.A., 1987), p. 202.

285 Ibíd., p. 153.

286 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1994, p. 81

287 Halstead, Walsh y Warren, Eds., Good Health at Low Cost, p. 129, p. 137.

288 Ibíd., p. 136.

289 Ibíd., p. 129.

290 UNICEF, Ajuste con Rostro Humano, Vol. 1, p. 122.

291 Ibíd., p. 204

292 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 2000, p. 88-89

293 Alicia Korten, «Structural Adjustment and Costa Rican Agriculture», en Kevin Danaher, 50 Years is Enough: the case against the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. Global Exchange. South End Press, Boston. 1994. pp. 56-61.

294 Ibíd., p. 58.

295 Ibíd.

296 Ibíd., p. 59.

297 Ibíd., p. 58.

298 Ibíd., p. 61.

299 Ibíd., p. 61.

300 Prakash Chyra, «What accounts for Kerala's success?» Toward Freedom, febrero 1992 Vol 41 nº 1, p. 9-10.

301 Halstead, Walsh y Warren, eds., Good Health at Low Cost, p. 42.

302 Ibíd., p. 43.

303 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1995, p. 53.

304 Lester Brown, Nicholas Lenssen y Hal Kane. Vital Signs 1995. Worldwatch Institute, 1995, p. 146, 147.

305 David Morley, Jon Rohde y Glen Williams, Practising Health for All, Oxford University Press, 1983, p. 19.

306 Susan Meeker-Lowry «Guyana Takes on the IMF» In Context, nº 41, verano 1995, p. 34.

307 Ibíd., p. 33-35.

308 Ibíd., p. 35.

309 Ibíd. p. 35.

310 Gita Sen, Adrienne Germain, Lincoln Chen, eds. Population Policies Reconsidered: Health, Empowerment and Rights, Harvard University Press, 1994, p. 11.


Referencias: Parte 3

311 Hill AV. Presidential address to the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 1952. Citado en Maurice King, «Health is a sustainable state», The Lancet, 15 septiembre 1990.

312 «Why the poor need children: a study from Java.» Population and Development Review, septiembre 1977. Adaptado en David Werner y Bill Bower, Aprendiendo a Promover la Salud, Fundación Hesperian, 1990, p. 436.

313 Maurice King, «An anomaly in the paradigm: the demographic trap, UNICEF's dilemma and its opportunities.» News on Health Care in Developing Countries, Upsala University, enero 1991. Es el artículo principal de este número de la revista, dedicado al «Debate: Population Growth and Child Mortality», Este número también incluye una copia del polémico artículo original de Maurice King «Health is a sustainable state», publicado en The Lancet, 15 septiembre 1990.

314 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 2000, p. 101.

315 «Toward Wiser Population Policies», Contact, nº 135, febrero 1994. Génova. The Christian Medical Commission, p. 4.

316 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1994, p. 81.

317 John Ratcliffe, «Social justice and the demographic transition: lessons from India's Kerala State», en D Morley, J Rohde y G Williams (eds.) Practising Health for All. Oxford. Oxford University Press, 1983.

318 Richard Franke, Barbara Chasin, Kerala, Radical Reform as Development in an Indian State. The Institute for Food and Development Policy. San Francisco, CA, 1989.

319 John Ratcliffe, «Toward a Social Justice Theory of Demographic Transition: Lessons from India's Kerala State», JANASAMKHYA, Vol. 1, junio1983.

320 Gobierno de Cuba, Junta Central de Planificacion. Publicacion 5, Direccion de Demografia, septiembre 1977. Banco Mundial, Informe sobre el Desarrollo Mundial 1981; Citado en D Morley, J Rohde y G Williams, Practising Health for All, Oxford University Press, 1983, p. 21; También: UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1986, 1991, 1996.

321 David Werner, «Health Care in Cuba Today: A model system or a means of social control», octubre 1978 (disponible a través de HealthWrights.)

322 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1994, p. 73.

323 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 2000; p. 100-101.

324 Véase Declaration of People's Perspectives on «Population» Symposium, Comilla, Bangladesh, 12-13 diciembre 1993. Disponible a través de UBINIG, 5/3 Barobo Mahanpur, Ring Road, Shaymoli, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

325 John W Ratcliffe, «China's One Child Family Policy: Solving the Wrong Problem.» [Les Politiques Chinoises de la Poblacion essai pour `Resourdre un Faux Problem'], Politiques de Population, Vol. 3, nº 4, marzo 1989, pp 5-58.

326 Charles A. Radin, «AIDS fight portrayed as a failure.» Boston Globe, 10 agosto 1994, p. 1, p. 10.

327 Ibíd.

328 David Sanders y Adbulrahman Sambo, «AIDS in Africa: The Implications of Economic Recession and Structural Adjustment», Health Policy and Planning, Vol. 6 (1991), nº 2, p. 161.

329 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1994, p. 44.

330 Lester Brown, Nicholas Lenssen, Hal Kane, Vital Signs 1995, Worldwatch Institute, p. 18.

331 Anne E Platt, Infecting Ourselves: How Environmental and Social Disruptions Trigger Diseases, Worldwatch Paper 129, Worldwatch Institute, abril 1996, p. 30.

332 Lester Brown, Nicholas Lenssen, Hal Kane, Vital Signs 1995, Worldwatch Institute, p. 18.

333 Anne E Platt, Infecting Ourselves: How Environmental and Social Disruptions Trigger Diseases, Worldwatch Paper 129, Worldwatch Institute, abril 1996, p. 29.

334 David Sanders y Adbulrahman Sambo, «AIDS in Africa: The Implications of Economic Recession and Structural Adjustment», Health Policy and Planning, Vol. 6 (1991), nº 2, p. 162.

335 Anne E Platt, Infecting Ourselves: How Environmental and Social Disruptions Trigger Diseases, Worldwatch Paper 129, Worldwatch Institute, abril 1996, p. 30.

336 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1995, p. 24.

337 David Rogers, «An African AIDS Diary: Presidential Mission to Africa, January 4-19, 1991», The Club of Kos for Health Care Newsletter, Vol. 14, nº 3 (mayo 16, 1991), p. 8.

338 Ibíd.

339 Ibíd.

340 Ibíd.

341 Anne E Platt, Infecting Ourselves: How Environmental and Social Disruptions Trigger Diseases, Worldwatch Paper 129, Worldwatch Institute, abril 1996, p. 21.

342 Editorial «Structural adjustment too painful» The Lancet, Vol 344, 19 noviembre 1994, p 1377. La referencia de esta afirmación es Sanders D, Sambo A, «AIDS in Africa: the implication of economic recession and structural adjustment.» Health Policy Planning 1991; 6: 157-65.

343 ONU, World Urbanization Prospects, 1992 Revision (New York), 1993; Citado en Hal Kane, The Hour of Departure, Worldwatch Paper 125, junio 1995, p. 38.

344 Anne E Platt, Infecting Ourselves: How Environmental and Social Disruptions Trigger Diseases, Worldwatch Paper 129, Worldwatch Institute, abril 1996, p. 30.

PARTE 4

1 Carl E Taylor, Robert L Parker y Steven Jarrett, «The Evolving Chinese Rural Health Care System», Research in Human Capital Development, Vol. 5, p. 222.

2 Visita personal de David Werner a San Ramón, 1980.

3 David Werner, «The Village Health Worker—Lackey or Liberator?», (Disponible en HealthWrights) p. 8.

4 Los informes varían mucho en cuando a la TMM5 de Mozambique en 1985. UNICEF la sitúa en 252 (Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1987, p. 128.), el Ministerio de Salud de Mozambique la estima entre 325-375 (The Impact on Health in Mozambique of South African Destabilization, Ministerio de Salud, Repúplica Popular de Mozambique, marzo 1987, p. 4), mientras que la Dra. Ana Novoa la considera de 364 en la ciudad de Beira (Ana Novoa et al., Morbilidade e Mortalidade por Diarreia em Crianças Menores de 5 Años de Idade, na Cidade da Beira (Direcçao Provincial de Saude de Sofala, Faculdade de Medicina de UEM, Mozambique, julio 1985),
p. 1.).

5 Dra. Ana Novoa et al., Morbilidade e Mortalidade por Diarreia em Crianças Menores de 5 Años de Idade, na Cidade da Beira (Direcçao Provincial de Saude de Sofala, Faculdade de Medicina de UEM, Mozambique, julio 1985), p. 1.

6 The Impact on Health in Mozambique of South African Destabilization, Ministerio de Salud, República Popular de Mozambique, marzo 1987, p. 1.

7 El papel de la OMS está corroborado por la correspondencia y conversaciones de los autores con varios observadores del programa.

8 Esta sección está basada en D Sanders, «The Potential and Limits of Health Sector Reforms in Zimbabue», en Reaching Health for All, Rohde H, Chatterjee M y Morley D (eds.), Oxford University Press 1993, pp. 239-266.

9 Consejo Internacional para la Salud del Pueblo, Health Care in Societies in Transition, A Report on a Small International Meeting Held in Managua, Nicaragua, December 4-9, 1991,1992, p. 64; NH Antia, «Alternative Policy for Health for All», The Concept of Health Under National Democratic Struggle, Consejo Internacional para la Salud del Pueblo, 1995, p. 52-56.

10 Grupo de Trabajo, The Children's supplementary Feeding Program in Zimbabue. Informe presentado al Ministerio de Salud, Harare, 1982.

11 Ibíd.

12 Consejo Internacional para la Salud del Pueblo, Health Care in Societies in Transition, A Report on a Small International Meeting Held in Managua, Nicaragua, December 4-9, 1991,1992, p. 110.

13 David Werner. «Viva Zapata! How the Uprising in Chiapas Revitalized the Struggle for Health in Sinaloa», Newsletter from the Sierra Madre, nº29, junio 1994, pp. 7-9.

14 «Is the Worst Yet to Come in Mexico?», Bankcheck Quarterly, nº 12, septiembre 1995, p. 3.

15 Ibíd.

16 Ibíd.

17 Dennis Dunleavy, «Mexico's Hard Times Get Harder», Juntos por la Salud News, junio 1995, p. 3.

18 Lynda Taylor, «Cleaning Up the Border, Will sustainability be a priority?»,The Workbook, Southwest Research and Information Center, verano 1995, p. 51.

19 Los datos de esta lista proceden de: Mary Purcell, «Mexico: One year later, the crisis continues.» Third World Resurgence nº 67, marzo, 1996, reimpreso de The Other Side of Mexico, January-February 1996.

20 Patrick J Buchanan, «NAFTA is working wonders—for Mexican jobs», San Jose Mercury, 19 septiembre 1994.

21 «Anti-immigrant violence rages nationwide», Intelligence Report, agosto 1994, nº 74. The Southern Poverty Law Center, Montgomery, AL, USA.

22 Luis Hernández, The Nation, 28 marzo 1994.

23 David Werner y Jason Weston, «The Hidden Costs of Free Trade: Mexico Bites the Bullet», Newsletter from the Sierra Madre, nº 31 mayo 1995, pp. 4-6.

24 Richard Garfield, «Nicaragua: Health under Three Regimes», en Jon Rohde, Meera Chatterjee, David Morley, Reaching Health for All, 1993. Oxford University Press. p. 268.

25 Ibíd., p. 270.

26 Tony Dajer, «Why Nicaraguan Children Survive», Links Health and Development Report, primavera 1991, p 12.

27 Richard Garfield, «Nicaragua: Health under Three Regimes», en Jon Rohde, Meera Chatterjee, David Morley, Reaching Health for All, 1993. Oxford University Press, p. 268.

28 Ibíd., p. 271-172.

29 Ibíd., p. 274-275.

30 R Garfield, E Prado, JR Gates y SH Vermund, «Malaria in Nicaragua: Community-based Control Efforts and the Impact of War», International Journal of Epidemiology, 18(2) (1989).

31 Richard Garfield, «Nicaragua: Health under Three Regimes», en Jon Rohde, Meera Chatterjee, David Morley, Reaching Health for All, 1993. Oxford University Press. p. 276-277.

32 Ibíd., p. 277.

33 Ibíd., p. 278.

34 Garfield y Williams, pp. 200-201, citando a B Smith, Health Situation Analysis, Nicaragua, 1990 (Managua: Mimeo, 1990), p. 39.

35 David Werner, del prólogo del libro de Richard Garfield Health Care in Nicaragua, Primary Care Under Changing Regimes, Oxford University Press, 1992, pp. ix-x.

36 Richard Garfield, Health Care in Nicaragua, Primary Care Under Changing Regimes, Oxford University Press, 1992, p. 70.; MINSA, Plan de Salud 1987, Managua, MINSA, 1986.

37 Richard Garfield, Health Care in Nicaragua, Primary Care Under Changing Regimes, Oxford University Press, 1992, p. 68.

38 Ibíd.

39 Comunicación personal con María Zúñiga, ex miembra del Ministerio de Salud Sandinista.

40 Richard Garfield, «Nicaragua: Health under Three Regimes», en J Rohde, M Chatterjee, D Morley, Reaching Health for All, 1993. Oxford University Press, p. 284-285.

41 Fuente: Ministerio de Salud, Sistemas Generales de Información, 1994.

42 Ibíd.

43 De una carta abierta de Witness for Peace, Washington, D.C. 1994.

44 Citas de Noam Chomsky, Las Intenciones del Tío Sam, 1995, Txalaparta, Navarra (España), p. 37.

45 Ibíd., p. 38.

46 Ibíd., pp. 39.

47 Ibíd., p. 40-41.

48 David Korten, When Corporations Rule the World, (Kumarian Press y Berrett-Koehler, West Hartford, CT y San Francisco, CA), 1995.

49 David Sanders y Richard Carver, The Struggle for Health: Medicine and the Politics of Underdevelopment (London: Macmillan, 1985), p. 184.

50 Ibíd., p. 207.

51 Medea Benjamin y Andrea Freedman, Bridging the Global Gap, Seven Locks Press, 1989, p. v.

52 James Hightower, «20 Questions», Utne Reader, enero-febrero 1995, p. 79; Citado en David Korten, When Corporations Rule the World, (Kumarian Press, West Hartford, Connecticut) 1995, p. 293.

53 Worldwatch Institute, «Matters of Scale» World Watch. Vol. 7, nº 5, septiembre/octubre 1994, p. 39, Washington D.C.

54 De Justice Denied: Human Rights and the International Financial Institution, publicado por el Women's Institute for Human Rights; e International Institute for Human Rights, Environment and Development. 1994.

55 Najmi Kanji, Nazneen Kanji, Firoze Manji, «From development to sustained crisis: Structural adjustment, equity and Health» Soc Sci Med, Vol. 33 nº 9, pp. 985-993, 1991.

56 «The Ukunda Declaration on Economic Policy and Health», Health Policy and Planning, 6(2), 1991, p. 173-175.

57 «Filthy Rich», New Internationalist, septiembre 1994, p. 17, Toronto, Canadá. 

APÉNDICE

1 Roger Sawyer, Children Enslaved (Londres: Routledge, 1988), p. 178; citado en Kent, p. 184.

2 Por ejemplo, en 1989 la administración Bush amenazó con recortar los fondos estadounidenses para la OMS si la agencia aceptaba como miembro al recién proclamado Estado Palestino. «Baker Urges Cutting Off of Funds if UN Agencies Upgrade PLO», New York Times, 2 mayo 1989, p. A6.

3 Por ejemplo, en 1984 la administración Reagan interrumpió la financiación de EE.UU. a la (UNESCO) porque la agencia se había vuelto demasiado `política'. Graham Hancock, Lords of Poverty: The Power, Prestige and Corruption of the International Aid Business, p. 49; William Preston Jr., Hope and Folly: The United States and UNESCO 1945-1985 (University of Minnesota Press) 1989, p. 10.

4 George Kent, The Politics of Children's Survival (London: Praeger, 1991), p. 185.

5 Vea, por ejemplo, UNICEF, Within Human Reach: A Future for Africa's Children (New York: UNICEF, 1985), p. 64; Giovanni Andrea Cornia, Richard Jolly y Frances Stewart, eds., Ajuste con Rostro Humano: Protección de los Vulnerables y Promoción del Crecimiento (Madrid: Siglo XXI de España editores, S.A., 1987), Vol. I, p. 2.

6 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1989, pp. 1-28.

7 Ibíd., pp. 21, 23.

8 Ibíd., p. 34.

9 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1995.

10 Afirmación de 50 Years is Enough (50 Años Bastan) -coalición que se opone a las políticas del Banco Mundial y el FMI- en la Cumbre Mundial de Copenhage, marzo 1995.

11 De una afirmación de Peggy Antrobus, Coordinadora General de Alternativas de Desarrollo de Women for a New Era (DAWN), en la Cumbre Social de Copenhage, marzo 1995.

12 Declaración Alternativa de Copenhage, redactada en el Foro de ONGs durante la Cumbre Social de marzo de 1995.

13 UNICEF, Estado Mundial de la Infancia 1995, p. 61.

 

 


Copyright© 2000 David Werner, David Sanders, Jason Weston, Steve Babb y Bill Rodríguez
Traducción: David Pérez Solís
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